Sugar Industry is the 2nd most important industry of Pakistan after cotton. Pakistan is self sufficient in sugar, out of which most is consumed locally and the excess is even exported. Pakistan inherited a weak base of sugar industry at the time of independence producing only 7,932 tonnes of sugar. The amount was insufficient for the local needs and so most of it had to be imported. The Government paid attention to improve this sector and set up a commission with the purpose to developing a stronger sugar industry. As a result of all the consistent efforts now we have 75 sugar mills in Pakistan which are producing 2.5 million tonnes of sugar. The industry has given employment to around 100,000 people.
Most of sugar mills are present in Punjab and Sindh with 38 and 30 respectively, and only 6 are present in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. As sugarcane needs to be pressed soon after it is harvested, so the mills are located very close to the sugarcane fields so that the stalks can be transported as quickly as possible. After pressing the juice is used to make sugar while the left over named as ‘Bagasse’ is used to make chipboards, paper etc. and is also used as a source of power in the mills. Molasses is also a by product obtained during the process of sugar refining. Molasses is used in the chemical industry to make alcohol which is used in some medicines etc.
Sugar mills are facing a problem of lack of raw material as excess quantity of raw sugarcane is used for Gur making and for seeds. It should be only 25% of total sugarcane production used but around 37% of it is used. With the shortage of raw material and some bad planning of the officials Pakistan has to import sugar from neighbouring countries to fulfil its local consumption.
Pakistan is an agricultural country which accounts for about 23% of its GDP. It is the largest employment generating sector, employing 48% of labour force in the country. Forestry and Fishing contributes around 25% of the Pakistan’s GDP.
Despite being an agricultural country, out of its 803,940 sq km of total area, about 60% is considered unsuitable for agricultural activities or forestry. This huge area consists of mountains, deserts and urban settlements. Out of total cultivable area only three quarters is fertile due to lack of rain in most areas.
Pakistan’s 70% of the farmed area is in Punjab, followed by the Sindh that occupies 20%, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa contribute around only 10% and Balochistan has only 1% of the farmed land.
Due to lack of rainfall farming largely depends on irrigation. The Government of Pakistan has been taking many steps to improve water supply for the crops. Today Pakistan has one of the world’s largest irrigation networks. Due to different projects at different areas of the country, cultivated area has increased to more than one third since independence and now 80% of the farming is done with the help of intensive irrigation.
Pakistan generally has two main crop seasons:
- Kharif Season:
It is the summer season of the country in which the crops are planted from April to June and harvested from October to December. Kharif crops need more amount of water and heat. Main Kharif crops are cotton, rice, sugarcane, tobacco, maize and millet. They cover the 45% of cultivated land of Pakistan. They mostly include cash crops which are sold by the farmers in the market to earn profit.
- Rabi Season:
It is the winter season in which the crops are planted from October to December and harvested in April and May. In Rabi season the crops need less amount of water. Rabi Crops include wheat, Barley, oil seeds and grams. They cover about 55% of the total cultivated land of Pakistan.
Kharif Crops :
Cotton is Pakistan’s one of the main cash crops and is an important export commodity. Cotton cultivation requires a long frost free time, moderate rain and lots of sunshine. The soil suitable for it is fairly heavy with moderate levels of nutrients. A large proportion of cotton is grown in areas with less rainfall obtaining water from irrigation. The production for a given year mostly starts juts after harvesting the previous autumn crop.
During 1991, Pakistan was ranked third in the production of cotton after China and USA and was first in cotton export. In Pakistan cotton is also named as ‘silver fibre’. It is a warm climate crop and cannot tolerate the freezing temperature. Pakistan has a fertile and well drained soil. Cotton is the main export item of the country so lot of efforts are made by the Government to promote its production and facilitate the farmers.
For good cotton crop, there must be proper supply of fertilizers and five to eight sessions of irrigation during its growth time period. Cotton boll is very sensitive and can easily be damaged by the attack of insects so frequent spraying of insecticides ensures good crop. Cotton is picked either manually or mechanically. On most of the farms in Pakistan it is done manually normally by rural women. After picking, cotton bolls are sent to the ginning mills where cotton fibres (lint) are separated from the cotton seeds. Then cotton lint is tied in bales and stored, after that they are sold out to the spinning mills to make threads.
Cotton seeds are also pressed to extract oil. This oil is used in cooking or in some industrial processes. After oil extraction remains of the seeds are used as cattle feed. Three fourth of the cotton of Pakistan is grown in the Province of Punjab whereas the remaining is grown in Sindh.
It is the most important staple food in a large part of the world especially in South and East Asia, Middle East and West Indies. After maize it possesses the second place in world’s highest production of grains. It is an important grain for caloric intake and nutrition of humans providing one fifth of the calories consumed. Cultivation of rice is well suited in the areas with low labour costs and high rainfall. It can be grown anywhere even on mountains. The traditional way of cultivating rice is by flooding the crops after setting the seedlings. This needs sound planning and good supply of water for damming and channelling.
Rice is an important cash as well as food crop of Pakistan. In about one-tenth of the cultivable land we grow rice. It fulfils more than 2 million tones of our food requirement and this industry has given employment to a large number of people in the country.
Rice need a large amount of water, so it has to be grown in water irrigated areas where large required quantity of water remain available all the time to the farmers. Levelled fertile land with nonporous sub soil layer is required for its cultivation. Rice likes to grow with its ‘feet in water’. Main rice cultivated areas are in Punjab and Sindh. Rice is also cultivated in Khyber Pakhtunkwa but on a very small scale on terraced fields in the northern areas of Pakistan.
After harvesting and threshing rice is send to the factories for separating the good grains and then after polishing are send to the market for local customers and a large portion is packed for export
It is a crop native to warm temperature to tropical areas of Asia. The stout, fibrous and jointed stalks measuring 2 to 6 meters long are rich in sugar. Sugarcane products are many in the world including sugar (brown and white), molasses, falernum, ethanol and bagasse etc. The main countries producing sugarcane are India, Pakistan, Brazil, Colombia, Australia, Philippines, Hawaii and Cuba.
Sugarcane is another important cash crop of Pakistan. Internationally the country has been ranked 12th in the production of sugar. Like rice sugarcane is also a water loving plant and amount of juice in it depends highly on the ample quantity of water given to the crop. It required 16 sessions of irrigation and heavy fertilization for good growth. Sugarcane requires a large amount of water so it has to be grown in irrigated areas.
The seeds of sugarcane once sowed can give two to three successive crops after that the seeds have to be sown again. Right after cultivation sugarcane is sent to the mills otherwise it will start loosing its weight as juice start evaporating. It is scrubbed to remove dust and with the help of rollers juice is extracted which is used to make either white or brown sugar and in rural areas gur is also made. Juice of sugarcane is called ‘Molasses’. The remains of the sugarcane are called ‘Bagasse’ that is used for animal feed, to make chip boards, paper. It is also rarely used as a bio fuel to generate electricity.
It is harvested mechanically in most of the developed countries but hand harvesting accounts for more than half of the world’s production which is basically done in the developing countries like India and Pakistan. In this method the field is set on fire to burn dry leaves killing any snakes without damaging the stalks and roots. Then the cane is cut just above the ground level with the help of machetes or cane knives.
It is an agricultural product which is processed from leaves in the genus Nicotiana. It is used as an organic pesticide, consumed as a form of nicotine tartrate and is also used in some medicines. It is basically consumed as a recreational drug in most of the countries. It is a valuable cash crop for countries like China, Cube and United States of America. Rates of tobacco smoking is in the declining phase in the developed countries but continue to rise in the developing countries.
It is cultivated just like any other crop. Seeds are planted in hot beds or cold frames to prevent them from insects and transplanted in the fields afterwards. It is an annual crop harvested by hand or mechanically. It is then stored for curing allowing oxidation and carotenoids degradation. This allows the crop to take on the smoothness of the smoke. It is then packed according to the forms it is consumed which is chewing, smoking , sniffing etc.
Tobacco is a cash crop growing in few areas of Pakistan. Its share in the foreign exchange of Pakistan is of 570.2 million rupees that makes 0.4% share in the total exports of the country. Province Khyber Pakhtunkwa is the main tobacco growing area where two types of tobacco are grown, i.e. Barley and Virginia. Pakistan is fulfilling the local demand of tobacco and is also exporting good amount of tobacco earning a good share of profits with its export.
It is commonly known as ‘Corn’ and has been used by human civilization even in prehistoric times. The cultivation of the crop started in Mexico and spread throughout America. It gained popularity in the rest of the world in 15th and 16th centuries. Due to its ability to grow in diverse climates it is widely cultivated throughout the world today. The most important country for its growth is United States which produces high quality maize and possess 40% of the world’s harvest.
Maize is the third important cereal crop in Pakistan after wheat and rice. It makes up 4.8% of the total farmed area with an annual production of about 1.3 million tonnes. Main producing provinces are Khyber Pakhtunkhwa which contributing 68% and Punjab contributing 30% of the total crop production in the country. It needs moderate amount of water so those areas where rainfall is moderate maize can be grown even with out irrigation.
Maize is a main source of starch that is why maize flour ( corn starch) is an important ingredient in both home cooking and industrialial food items. It is also used in making cooking oil, syrups and gluten. The maize starch is also used in making of plastics, adhesives, fabrics and several other chemical products. The stigmas from its flowers are popularily used as herbal supplements.
The Millets are small seeded species of cereal crops which is grown for food and fodder. They are small seeded grasses which grow in difficult environmental conditions like those with a risk of drought. They have been produced in East Asia for the past ten decades and today are the major sources of food in arid and semi arid areas in making of the traditional foods all around the world. Millet is also known as jawar or bajara in Urdu. This is a coarse grain and is an important part of daily food of the people living in villages of Pakistan and India. It is used in making local staple hand rolled flat bread commonly known as ‘Jawar Roti’.
Millet is an important crop for the people living in the areas which are dry, cooler and less fertile in Pakistan. It is a tough crop and can grow in less fertile soil as well. Out of total area under the cultivation of millet, 60.7% was in Punjab, 37.8% in Sindh, 0.1% in Balochistan and 1.4 % in Khyber Pakhtunkwa.
The main Rabi crops in Pakistan as follows:
It is a grass which originated from the Fertile Crescent areas of the East but today it is produced throughout the world. It is the world’s third most produced cereal after maize and rice according to the 2007 rankings with the production of 607 million tons. It has a higher level of vegetable protein content than in rice or maize. Globally, it is the main human food crop after rice.
Wheat is the most important rabi crop of Pakistan and the most important grain crop as well. It occupies the largest cultivated area throughout the country. Pakistan is ranked 10th among wheat producing countries in terms of area and holds the 59th position in terms of yield. The country is not only self sufficient in the production of wheat but also export the surplus crop to the neighbouring countries. Wheat contributes 3.0% of the GDP of Pakistan.
It can grow under a wider range of conditions as long as the temperature is not too hot. In many areas of Pakistan wheat is growing with the help of rainfall, whereas in rest of the areas irrigation system is used.
Farmers sow the wheat in the months of October and November as in winter season temperature conditions are best for its growth and the months of April and May the temperature is suitable for its ripening. Then in May and June, harvesting, threshing and winnowing of the grains starts. Punjab is the main wheat producing province contributing 72% of the total production. Sindh is the next largest wheat producer region with a share of 17% of total production of the country.
It is a cereal grain and has many uses. It is used in making many soups and stews and its bread is common in many cultures around the world. It is an important animal fodder and used in some distilled beverages as well. It is also known for having nutritional as well as medical values. Prophet Muhammad (mpbuh) prescribed Talbina (barley) for seven different diseases. It is also known for calming and soothing the bowels. It can be roasted and its tea is popular in many Asian countries. Its soup is eaten during the Holy month of Ramadan in Saudia Arabia. It has the ability to improve nutrition and boost food security.
According to the ranking done in 2007 barley is the fourth most produced cereal crop in the world with the production of 136 million tons. It is considered to be an adaptable and a tough crop. It can grow in areas with cool and dry climate. It is popular in temperate areas where it is grown in summers and in tropical it is grown in winters. The germination time is around one to three days. It has a short growing season and is relatively tolerant to drought. It can tolerate soil salinity more than wheat. It can even grow in poor soil. In Pakistan it is largely used as animal food and in some parts of country as human food as well. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is the main barley producing area, whereas Punjab is also growing barley on a small scale.
- Oil Seeds
They are lipid materials derived from many plants. Though different parts of plants may give oil but it is primarily extracted from the seeds. Oils are liquids in room temperature unlike the fats but the natural oils have a melting range as they are not chemically homogeneous.
They may or may not be edible e.g. tung oil or castor oil are not meant for eating instead they can be used in making cosmetics products, paints or any other industrial puposes. Then there are oil extracted from corn, sesame, cotton seed, soybean, palm, sunflower, peanuts, grape seeds and all of them are edible and used in cooking food.
These oil seeds are full of fat that is the source of energy for humans. In Pakistan oil is extracted from the seeds of cotton, sunflower, rape, soybean, canola, maize, mustard, sesame and peanut plants. But more attention should be given on the production of oil seeds as only one third of country’s requirement s fulfilled by the locally produced seeds whereas the rest is imported from other countries.
Pulses are important food crop with high nutritional value. Just like the words lentil and bean, ‘Pulse’ refers to just the seeds not the whole plant. Pakistan and India are the largest producers of pulses in the world basically because they are consumed the most in these regions. United States, Australia and Canada are also significant exporters in this area. Usually grains are consumed with the pulses to form complete nutritional advantages. Pulses are also a good source of pre biotic resistant starch. Pulses have 20% to 25% protein which is double in content as compared to wheat and rice. They can be called ‘vegetarian meat’. Pulses include gram, moong, mash masoor and other daals. They are important source of protein and is the main part of Pakistan’s daily food especially now a days when meat being the best source of protein is beyond the reach of a common man in the country. Pakistan’s annual demand of pulses is approximately one million tonnes, of which 92% is being producing locally. Eastern part of Indus plain and some parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are important areas for the production of pulses.
Economy of Pakistan largely depends on agriculture. It provides livelihood to millions of people who are associated with agriculture one way or the other.
There are two crop growing seasons in Pakistan. One is the Rabi in which the crops are sown in the beginning of winter season (October-November) and harvested in early summer (April-May). Wheat, barley, grams, oilseeds and pulses are some Rabi crops. The other crop is the Kharif which is sown in summer and harvested in winter. Rice, sugarcane, maize and cotton are some Kharif crops.
Below is a map of Pakistan which shows agricultural active areas of Pakistan. Notice that most of the crop growing activity is done in the Indus River Plains of Sindh and Punjab.
As clearly indicated by the map, wheat is grown in most areas. According to an estimate the golden bales of wheat are grown 31.6% of the total cropped area which is about 8,303 hectares. The annual yield of wheat was 21,700 tonnes in 2005-6.
Cotton the “King of fibers” is grown on 3,096 hectares. Cotton is an important cash crop. 2/3 of Pakistan’s expert earnings are from cotton and its products.
Rice the third major crop is grown on 2,621 hectares approximately 10% of the total cropped area with 5,547 tonnes being the average output. Different varieties of rice are grown in the plains of Punjab and upper Sindh. Rice is also grown in the terraced fields of NWFP on a small scale.
Besides these three major crops, sugar cane, oilseeds, pulses, grams, maize, barley and tobacco are also grown here. Pakistan also produces vegetables and export quality fruits.
Besides land farming, livestock farming, fish farming are also practiced in Pakistan. While live stock farming is mostly done in Punjab. Fish farming is done along the coastline. The Pakistani coastline is 1090km long and is divided between Sindh (30%) and Makran (70%). The coastline is rich in marine life especially Sindh. The mangrove forests provide a breeding ground to fish and shrimps. The fish and shrimps from Pakistan are exported to Europe, Middle East, USA and Japan. Local consumption of fish in Pakistan is quite low.
Pakistan depends largely on agriculture for sustenance. Nearly 25% of the land is farm-able and is watered by one of the largest irrigation systems of the world. Pakistan stands 20th worldwide and 5th amongst the Muslim countries in farm production. The major crops produced are wheat, rice, cotton and sugarcane. Pakistan also produces fruits and vegetables besides pulses, ghee and milk.
To increase the yield, the Government has chalked out policies and set up institutes to help the farmers. One such is example is the Zarai Taraqiati Bank formerly known as the Agriculture Development Bank. It has a network of branches which provide easy loans to the farmers to purchase high quality seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and machinery.
The government of Pakistan has also established The University of Agriculture in Faisalabad where modern techniques are studied, researched and then practically implemented to improve the production of various crops.
Livestock farming is also widely practiced in Pakistan. Cattle, sheep, goats, buffaloes and poultry are reared for their meat, milk, hides and eggs. Pakistan is the fifth largest milk producer in the world.
Fishery also contributes to the national economy. Besides providing livelihood to scores of people, it also brings in foreign exchange. Lobsters and shellfish are the major exports.
The province of Punjab in Pakistan is blessed with rich alluvial soil. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people of Punjab. The tributaries of River Indus flowing through the province have made farming easy. It also has the world’s largest canal system to supply water for irrigation purposes to far flung areas. Punjab produces 68% of the food grain of the country and for this reason is known as the Bread Basket of Pakistan.
Wheat and cotton are the major crops and are grown on a large scale. Other crops include rice, sugarcane, pulses, millet, corn, oilseeds, vegetables and fruits.
Cotton and rice are cash crops and are exported abroad and so is tobacco. The citrus fruits grown (keno) and mangoes of Punjab are also exported to the Gulf countries.
Bahawalpur, Bahawalnagar, Rahim Yar Khan, Sahiwal, Sargodha, Gujrat, Faisalabad, Okara, Khushab are some regions where wheat, cotton and rice are grown. Tobacco is mostly grown in Multan, Sialkot and Gujranwala.
NWFP (now KPK- Khyber PakhtoonKhwah) experiences severe cold weather. The heavy snowfall makes farming impossible. In some places people migrate to warmer places as well. As most of the area is mountainous, “terrace farming” is practiced here. In terrace farming, steps are cut out in to steep hills and the edge of the slope is bordered with stone walls called “bunds”. The bunds check water and soil from flowing away.
As agricultural resources are scarce, there is not much agricultural production in KPK.
Fruits mostly dry fruits are grown here. A variety of apples is grown here. Besides apples, apricots and dry fruits like almonds, walnuts and pine nuts are also grown here in abundance. Potato breeding also takes place in the NWFP (KPK). Research is being done on varieties of potatoes.
Among crops small variety of wheat, maize and oilseeds are grown here. Sugarcane and tobacco are grown on a larger scale. Tobacco and sugar cane are the chief cash crops also responsible for the industrialization of the area.
Main areas on which crops are grown are Mansehra, Peshawar, Mardan, Swabi etc.NWFP (KPK) contributes a lot in the production of fruits in Pakistan. A lot of fruits consumed in Pakistan and exported to other countries is grown in KPK.
Balochistan is a land of diversity. Not only are there dissimilarities in the topography of the region, the climate varies as well.
Basically Balochistan is dry and barren and receives little rainfall thus making it difficult for people to live and crops to grow. No wonder being the largest province area wise it has the smallest population. While most of the area is covered with scrub vegetation, (short thick bushes) some regions of Balochistan are blessed with extremely fertile soil. The temperature of Balochistan ranges from temperate to tropical.
The rich soil along with the suitable temperature is ideal for the growth of fruits. As a matter of fact, Balochistan produces a variety of fruits in surplus and is nicknamed as “The Fruit Basket” of Pakistan.
Out of the total fruit crops of Pakistan, Balochistan produces;
FRUITS PRODUCED VARIETIES GROWN TOTAL PERCENTAGE
APPLES 52 34
CHERRIES 15 90
ALMONDs 05 90
APRICOT 32 60
POMEGRANATES 04 60
GRAPES 22 90
DATEs 130 70
PEACH – 60
OLIVES 11 –
PLUMS 30 –
PISTACHIO 04 –
Because of their high quality, the fruits are also exported abroad especially to the Gulf States.
Although wheat and rice are grown in Balochistan but due to the lack of resources and shortage of water the production is quite low. The wheat and rice grown here are not sufficient for Baluchistan’s own needs and it relies on Sindh and Punjab to fulfill its requirements. The recent successful attempts to grow sugarcane and cotton have been encouraging for both the government and the people.
If proper measures are taken then agriculture can also flourish in Balochistan.
Pakistan depends largely on agriculture for its economic development. A contribution of 30% to the GDP (Gross Domestic Production) makes Sindh the 2nd largest supplier of agricultural products. In the province of Sindh only 40% of the land can be cultivated. The rest comprises of the rugged and barren Kirthar Range and the sandy Thar Desert.
The climate of Sindh is sub-tropical. It experiences long summer spells with temperature shooting up to more than 45oC during May to August. Winters are cold with a minimum of 2oC during January- December. Rainfall is unpredictable and occurs mostly during July and August. With erratic rainfalls the only reliable source of water is the River Indus. Three barrages namely Guddu, Sukkur and Kotri are constructed over the Indus to supply water for irrigation.
Major areas where crops are cultivated are Khairpur, Nausharo Faroz, Nawabshah, Mirpur Khas, Larkana and Sukkur.
The fertile lands of the Lower Indus Plains along with the temperature are ideally suited for crops like wheat, rice, cotton and sugar cane. Sindh produces 35% of rice, 28% of sugar cane, 20% of cotton and 12% of wheat of the total production. Apart from these cash crops, fruits are also grown in the orchards of Sindh. Mangoes, bananas, dates, guavas and citrus fruit trees are grown here.
Sindh is especially known for its Sindhri Mangoes which are exported abroad as well. Sindh is also the largest chilies producer of the country. The red hot variety grown here is very much in demand across the globe.
A variety of flowers are grown for commercial scale for extracting essential oils and for oil-seeds.
The government of Pakistan has set up the Sindh Agricultural Department which provides assistance and guidance to the farmers.
Pakistan is located in a temperate region which accounts for most of its dry weather throughout the year. Mostly it is dry and hot with spells of rainfall in the months from July to September bringing some relief for the parched earth. The rains generally start in the late parts of June and continue till the beginning of October depending on the intensity of the South-West monsoon which is the main source of rainfall. The weather continues to remain oppressive as the rain does little to bring the temperatures down. Even if the temperature slips down a degree or two, the humidity present in the air poses discomfort for the people living in the nation of Pakistan. The average rainfall in the entire of Pakistan is measured to be around 255 millimetres which is very less considering the amount of land under farming. Most of the crops go to waste due to the low average rainfall in all areas of Pakistan. Even in the rainy season, all the parts of Pakistan do not receive equal amount of average rainfall. In fact, some parts of the desert area of Pakistan receive little or no rainfall throughout the year.
The increasing effects of global warming on the agricultural climate in Pakistan are posing huge problems for the government and the people. Due to the increase in temperature and the scarcity of adequate rainfall, the agriculture in Pakistan is facing a severe crisis which can threaten to blow out of proportion if proper care is not taken in time. A single example which would greatly emphasize this point would be the statistics which show that the carbon emissions have increased 9-fold since 1980. This has led to a meteoric rise in temperature which in turn has given rise to worse yield of crops. The agricultural climate which is ideally suitable for the perfect yield is far from being available which is evident by the declining growth of crops with every successive season. The scarcity of adequate rainfall poses drought problems which does nothing to help the yield. Another primary reason for the degradation in the agricultural climate seems to be the reduction in the forest cover over the entirety of Pakistan which seems to have further reduced the amount of rainfall which is generally expected in a calendar year.
Agriculture accounts for almost 1/4th of the total GDP of Pakistan and is responsible for providing mass employment. On an average, agriculture industries employ almost 48% of the total work-force in Pakistan which is a huge number. Apart from mainstream agriculture, there is also the industry of fishing in Pakistan which is not so big yet, but has shown strong growth over the past decade or so. Right now, it accounts for a modest 5% of the total work-force but is growing at a good rate which is providing relief for the people of Pakistan. Apart from employing 48% of the total work-force, Agriculture industries in Pakistan support nearly 75% of the total population. The primary industries in Pakistan are cotton, wheat, rice, corn, fruits and vegetables. The biggest and the most important agriculture industry in Pakistan is the production of raw cotton. It accounts for a major part of their exports and is indicative of the overall economy of the nation. Most importantly, it contributes a lot to the GDP and helps in increasing the export earnings of the nation, thus keeping the external debt to a minimum.
The relationship between agriculture and industries in Pakistan is very complex. There is some dependence of agriculture on the methods and applications of industries. Some of the common categories under which this dependence can be classified count in the following list: the many methods of production and their changes; the magnitude of the production unit of the plant; heavy reliance on the topography and other climatic factors; the promptness with which decisions come about; the ways of practice and their standardization; the defining of the turnover; the formal organizations or heads taking prompt and head-on decisions; and, finally, the amount of cash pumped in the process, as well as the ease with which that can be done.
There are many problems in agro-industries yet to overcome and this cannot occur in Pakistan if we go by just any scientific design. Finding such a specific methodology for the context of Pakistan is rather difficult because of the relative primitiveness of what is still in use. Therefore, we find it imperative that a scientific method for easing out the relations in the agro-industries gets devised in Pakistan itself, one which will, in turn, might work in a positive and proper direction in benefit of the people.