Birth: 20th April 1895
Tenure: 17th October 1951 – 7th August 1955
Death: 12th September 1956
Malik Ghulam Muhammad as Governor General:
Ghulam Muhammad was the Finance Minister of Pakistan in 1947. After Liaqat Ali Khan’s death he became the Governor General of Pakistan because Khawaja Nazimuddin was made the Prime Minister. As the governor general of Pakistan, Ghulam Muhammad’s first major duty was to represent Pakistan at the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II held in 1953 in London. He was present in Westminster Abby along with Governor Generals of other nations such as New Zealand, Ceylon, Canada, Australia and South Africa.
Challenges faced by Malik Ghulam Muhammad:
The Assembly of Pakistan made efforts to change the constitution in 1954 in order to maintain a check over the Governor General’s powers in response to this Malik Ghulam Muhammad dismissed the Assembly itself. The Supreme Court challenged this action. However, Malik Ghulam Muhammad was successful despite a rebellious letter written by the Chief Justice. In later years this action was seen as the start of the so called royal politics in Pakistan in which non-elected officials get to govern the country and have extensive influence over the society and the provinces.
Malik Ghulam Muhammad had to take a leave of absence in 1955 due to his deteriorating health. Iskander Mirza, the acting governor general dismissed Malik Ghulam Muhammad and he died a year later in 1956.
A justice system is as important for the society as the creation of society itself. It implies ensuring that each and every member of the society is getting his rights without any external pressure or threats. For the creation of a just society, it is essential that a justice system is developed on equality basis for the countrymen. The justice system of Pakistan is headed by the Supreme Court the office of which is controlled by the Chief Justice. Pakistan has had twenty-two Chief Justices who have taken charge of the office during their tenure. The first Chief Justice of Pakistan was Justice Abdur Rashid who remained in the office from 1949 till 1954. The current Chief Justice is Iftikhar M. Chaudhry who took charge of office in the year 2009. Given below is the list of Chief Justices of Pakistan who are twenty-two in number:
1) Sir Abdur Rashid
2) Muhammad Munir
3) Muhammad Shahabuddin
4) A. R. Cornelius
5) Dr. S. A. Rahman
6) Fazal Akbar
7) Hamoodur Rahman
8) Muhammad Yaqub Ali
9) Shaikh Anwarul Haq
10) Muhammad Haleem
11) Muhammad Afzal Zullah
12) Dr. Nasim Hasan Shah
13) Sajjad Ali Shah
14) Ajmal Mian
15) Saeed -uz- Zaman Siddiqui
16) Irshad Hasan Khan
17) Bashir Jehangiri
18) Sheikh Riaz Ahmad
19) Nazim Hussain Siddique
20) Abdul Hameed Dogar
Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry
No country can live in isolation and it needs to be connected with other countries. The need to link with other countries is fulfilled by means of foreign ministry of a country. The foreign ministry is responsible for establishing amicable relationships with other countries in order to promote cooperation among them. The foreign affairs serve important purpose in the development of a country and therefore needs special attention. The foreign ministry of Pakistan is headed by the foreign ministers. The foreign ministry of Pakistan is currently under the office of Hina Rubbani Khar. Her tenure consists of a February 11, 2011 till July 20, 2011. The first foreign minister of Pakistan was M. Zafrulla Khan who took office at December, 1947 till Octobor, 1954. Here a list of all the foreign ministers of Pakistan has been presented in chronological order.
- Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan
- Muhammad Ali Bogra
- Hamidul HuqChoudhury
- Feroz Khan Noon
- Muhammad Ali Bogra
- Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
- Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada
- Mian Arshad Hussain
- Yahya Khan
- Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
- Aziz Ahmed
- Agha Shahi
- Sahabzada Yaqub Khan
- Abdul Sattar- caretaker
- Farooq Leghari
- Aseff Ahmad Ali
- Sahabzada Yaqub Khan- caretaker
- Gohar Ayub Khan
- Sartaj Aziz
- Abdul Sattar
- Khurshid Mahmud Kasuri
- Inam-ul-Haq- caretaker
- Shah Mehmood Qureshi
- Hina Rabbani Khar
A national anthem is the symbolic of the people’s love for their country. In other words, the patriotism of countrymen is manifested in the form of their national anthem. The history of national anthem of Pakistan is as old as the country itself. The national anthem of Pakistan was written by Hafiz Jalandhary, a renowned poet in the year 1952. The music of the anthem was composed by Ahmed Chhagala before the composition of the lyrics of anthem in 1949. The national anthem takes one minutes and twenty seconds to play and twenty musical instruments are used together to play thirty-eight various tones. The language of the national anthem of Pakistan is Persian and eleven singers sung this song when it was aired on radio Pakistan for the first time in August, 1954.
It is interesting to note that the selection of a song to be made the national anthem of Pakistan was an uphill task for the government of Pakistan. The issue of the selection of a song to become a national anthem of Pakistan was resolved by starting a competition between the potential and existing poets with the prize money of considerable amount. The competition had been won over by Hafiz Jalandhary out of the around seven hundred competitors. A controversy began about the poet of the national anthem of Pakistan by the claim of Jagganath Azad to be the one who wrote national anthem for Pakistan for the first time. However, this claim has been rejected because of lack of empirical evidence.
Pakistan has a rich cultural heritage and it is depicted in the form of marvelous structure built for the defense of a state or a country. There are many forts located all around the world that are of historical significance. The main purpose behind the construction of forts was to protect a country from invaders and enemies. However, they serve another purpose also which involves making a display of one’s architecture as depicted by its significance in a culture. Pakistan is proud to have enormous forts with beautiful architecture and rich cultural significance.Ranikot, the largest fort of the world is also situated in Pakistan. The reason behind the accumulation of forts in Pakistan lies in its history. As Pakistan initially was a part of Indo-Pak sub-continent, it had been ruled over by various monarchs including Mughals who were fond of art and architecture. Here a list of the famous forts of Pakistan has been presented naming only the top ten forts of Pakistan with their respective locations. These forts are a place of frequent local visits along with being famous tourist attractions
1) Ranikot Fort located in the province of Sindh.
2) Baltit Fort situated in Hunza Valley
3) Royal Fort located in Lahore
4) Rohtas Fort situated in Dina
5) Multan Fort located in Multan
6) Rawat Fort in Rawalpindi
7) Phrasal Fort in Rawalpindi
8) Red Fort of Muzaffarabad
9) Attock Fort of Rawalpindi
10) Giri Fort in Taxila
Pakistan has a rich culture and many languages are spoken here by a diversified group of people. Language is a mode of communication through which people living in this world communicate with each other. The ancient languages were consisted mostly of symbols and gestures. With the passage of time, letter and alphabets got developed which gave rise to a lot of languages. Now thousands of languages are being spoken in various parts of the world including Pakistan. There are two official languages in Pakistan namely Urdu and English with various four main regional languages. The four languages that are spoken in the four provinces of Pakistan are Punjabi, Pashtu, Sindhi and Balochi. However, there are other regional languages also that are spoken in various areas of Pakistan. These languages include Kashmiri, Saraiki, Hindko and some others. It is important to note that the majority of population in Pakistan speaks regional or provincial languages other than Urdu. A list of the top ten languages spoken in Pakistan is given below:
1) Punjabi Language spoken mostly in the province of Punjab
2) Pashto Language frequently spoken in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa
3) Sindhi Language predominantly spoken in Sindh province
4) Seraiki Language mostly spoken in Punjab province
5) Urdu Language frequently spoken all over Pakistan. Urdu is Pakistan’s national language.
6) Balochi Language predominantly spoken in Balochistan province
7) Hindko language spoken in hilly areas of Pakistan
8) Kashmiri language spoken in Azad Kashmir and adjacent areas
9) Brahui spoken in Southern suburbs of Pakistan
10) Shina mostly spoken in Giglit-Baltistan
Glaciers are made up of mass snow accumulation on a land over a long period of time. Glaciers vary according to their sizes and play a major role in keeping the atmosphere cool. There are many glaciers in Pakistan that are famous as trekking sites and tourist attractions. Most of the glaciers are located in Northern areas of Pakistan, especially around Karakoram mountain range. These glaciers are a special focus of attention for travelers all around the world and are frequently visited by people coming from all parts of the world. Their undisturbed beauty and lack of pollution in the surrounding environment makes them great trekking locations. The glaciers are a valuable asset of Pakistan because of helping the region keep its temperature normal which would have been enormously hot. These glaciers also add to the scenic beauty of Pakistan making her a beautiful country with rich natural scenery. The glaciers are quite large in number and therefore all of them cannot be mentioned here. However, a list of top ten glaciers of Pakistan on the basis of being the largest ones with their locations has been jotted down below:
1) Siachen Glacier at Karakoram range, Baltistan
2) Batura Glacier at Karakoram range
3) Hispar Glacier at Karakoram range
4) Biafo Glacier at Karakoram range, Shigar
5) Baltoro Glacier at Karakoram range
6) Yengunta Glacier at Karakoram range, Baltistan
7) Chianter Glacier at Hindukush, Chitral
8) Tirich Mir Glacier at Hindukush, Chitral
9) Chogo Lugma at Karakoram range-2
10) Passu Glacier at Karakoram range, Hunza Valley
Trekking is an activity that comprises of travelling along wide distances on foot. It is especially done on places where travelling by car or any other means is not possible or difficult to do. There are many geographical areas that are regarded as trekking sites or treks all around the world because of being of interest to travelers. Similarly, Pakistan is proud to offer travelling opportunities to people all over the world to walk on the famous trekking sites here. The particular areas reserved for trekking in Pakistan are located in Himalayas, Karakoram and Hindukush and are fascinating places to look at. Pakistanis and foreigners both can enjoy trekking in the Northern Areas of Pakistan to get in touch with natural beauty at its peak. Another feature of the trekking sites at these areas is the lack of pollution and virgin beauty of the enormous mountains and lakes flowing side-by. It is difficult to list down all the famous trekking sites of Pakistan due to the abundance to treks in Pakistan. However, an attempt has been done to selectively present a list containing top ten treks of Pakistan based on their popularity which is given below:
1) Trek of K-2 Base Camp
2) Trek of Biafo-Hisper Glaciers
3) Treks of Nanga Parbat
4) Trek of Batura Glacier
5) Trek of Chillinji Pass
6) Trek of Spantik Base Camp
7) Trek of Charakusa Glacier
8) Trek of Masherbrum Base Camp
9) Trek of Shimshal Valley
10) Trek of Thalle La
As portrayed by the Western media that Pakistan is a state of Islamic hardliners and fundamentalists, who promote training camps for terrorism and with an image of a male dominated society with no women rights and cheating is a common trait, Pakistan looks as if it is a tough sell to the prospective tourists en masse. Though the West has not heard of Pakistan’s diverse culture, breathtaking scenery, sprawling deserts and splashing rivers, enthralling mountains and sandy beaches with plentiful archaeological sites, it has a lot more to offer to the tourists who visit Pakistan.
Tourism in Pakistan is still in nascent stage due to the geo-political conditions, social and economic constraints; despite that, The Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation (PTDC) has played a key role in promoting tourism in Pakistan. PTDC was incorporated in 1970 and since then it is striving to attract tourists from every corner of the globe. However, the frail tourism regulatory framework since 1947 and lack of prioritization by the government towards the tourism industry has battered this beautiful land with ancient historical places and enchanting flora and fauna.
Tourism in Pakistan has seen a decline through decades as now Pakistan is being considered as one of the most dangerous destinations to visit. The military operations in Pakistan’s scenic sites viz. Swat and other areas of Khybar Pakhtoonkhwa have dealt an enormous thump to the tourism industry. Not only this is the reason, the low tourist volume is also blamed for the weak marketing strategies to attract tourists along with a constricted perception about Pakistan’s tourism. In a pre-military operation era, Pakistan was earning a revenue of Rs 18 billion though tourism, however, currently the tourism industry is incurring a loss of Rs 3.5 billion.
Government of Pakistan seems oblivious to the great potential of the tourism industry with is currently on the verge of a collapse. Measures should be taken for the survival of this industry as Pakistan has plentiful tourist destinations where rich culture, excellent cuisine, enchanting metro life and captivating green fields and golden sandy beaches are waiting to welcome the tourists.
Major Raja Aziz Bhatti (1928 – September 11, 1965) was a Pakistani Army officer who embraced martyrdom during the Indo-Pak war of 1965. Major Aziz Bhatti was born to a Muslim Rajput family in Hong Kong, his family moved to Pakistan before its independence in 1947. Major Aziz Bhatti’s father Abdullah Bhatti was a school master. Major Aziz Bhatti joined Pakistan Army in 1948. He had excellent student career in the then newly built Pakistan Military Academy, Abbotabad; he was awarded Sword of Honor and Norman Medal by the Prime Minister Liaqat Ali Khan. After passing out in 1950, Major Aziz Bhatti was commisned in Punjab Regiment. During his career of 15 years in the army; Major Bhatti served at various command and staff appointments of the Pakistan Army.
Major Aziz Bhatti was appointed as the Company Commander of a Punjab regiment before the outbreak of war between India and Pakistan in 1965. As the tensions escalated between the two countries, forces were ordered to get themselves prepared for any eventuality. Major Aziz Bhatti was given the command of Burki sector of Lahore. He laid a perfect model of defensive tactics and used every available thing for it. After the start of war Major Aziz Bhatti decided to stay with his forward troops instead of going back to Command post. He led his troops and did not sleep for almost three days. He and his men defend the strategically important BRB canal against enemy attacks for five days and nights despite of repeated attacks by Indian army.
In order to see every moment of Indian forces, Major Aziz Bhatti kept himself on elevated positions. He directed accurate fire to artillery which resulted in heavy loss of men and tanks to Indian forces. He kept leading his men from the front despite of heavy artillery fire from enemy positions. On September 11 as he was directing artillery fire he was hit by an enemy tank shell in the chest and embraced martyrdom.
He was buried in his village Ladian, Gujrat. He left 6 children and a wife. He later awarded Nishan-e-Haider for the supreme sacrifice offered by him. He is the only recipient of Nishan-e-Haider from the 1965 Indo-Pak War.