Pakistan has a rich culture and many languages are spoken here by a diversified group of people. Language is a mode of communication through which people living in this world communicate with each other. The ancient languages were consisted mostly of symbols and gestures. With the passage of time, letter and alphabets got developed which gave rise to a lot of languages. Now thousands of languages are being spoken in various parts of the world including Pakistan. There are two official languages in Pakistan namely Urdu and English with various four main regional languages. The four languages that are spoken in the four provinces of Pakistan are Punjabi, Pashtu, Sindhi and Balochi. However, there are other regional languages also that are spoken in various areas of Pakistan. These languages include Kashmiri, Saraiki, Hindko and some others. It is important to note that the majority of population in Pakistan speaks regional or provincial languages other than Urdu. A list of the top ten languages spoken in Pakistan is given below:
1) Punjabi Language spoken mostly in the province of Punjab
2) Pashto Language frequently spoken in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa
3) Sindhi Language predominantly spoken in Sindh province
4) Seraiki Language mostly spoken in Punjab province
5) Urdu Language frequently spoken all over Pakistan. Urdu is Pakistan’s national language.
6) Balochi Language predominantly spoken in Balochistan province
7) Hindko language spoken in hilly areas of Pakistan
8) Kashmiri language spoken in Azad Kashmir and adjacent areas
9) Brahui spoken in Southern suburbs of Pakistan
10) Shina mostly spoken in Giglit-Baltistan
Bollywood is killing our Pakistani film industry says one of our actors; our film industry has been hijacked more appropriately. Many of the cinemas have been closed and Lahore only produces 20 films a year which are of extremely low budget where as Mumbai (Bollywood) produces about 1000 of the fraction with 1.3 billion dollar budget each year.
Our great and famous Pakistani actor Ghulam Mohiudin who has done about 400 hundred Lollywood films says that our films have been replaced by Indian high budget films because our public would not like to go for low budget when they have got a far better option to follow. The legendary Pakistani actors mark 1960’s as the golden era of lollyword when the streets of Lahore were filled with art deco cinemas and packed houses. In the 1980’s we were producing about hundred films each year which were reduced to 20 a few years ago. Although now I see the Pakistani cinema rising up with the release of one of the greatest Pakistani movie Khuda Key Liye directed by Shoaib Mansoor a story of a man who was imprisoned for being a suspect of the 9/11 incident and how his brother claims to be the right Muslim. Though some of our Pakistani directors like Syed Noor and Shoaib Mansoor have tried to build up something that can catch the attention of the public but more effort is required. Today the movie land is found dead with most of them have been made car parks and other shopping malls. In such circumstances no one in the producer’s group dares to bring up money to invest on a film which wouldn’t be watched.
Let’s just imagine if you are given a choice and you have to choose only one i.e. Hollywood greatest movie Avatar and Pakistani film Mein Eik Din Laut Key Ayoonga you will definitely like to go for Avatar just because it is more technical and doesn’t have typical movie idea at least different.
With the release of Pakistani movie Bol we have seen a lot of audience moving around in the cinemas, and the ideas that have been portrayed in the film are quite different far from being certain. With the upcoming cinestar cinemas all around Pakistan there is a vast range of audience seeing entering and spending money. Now with the advancing in the theatres our producers and directors are more likely to take notice on making movies that would captivate the audience. Pakistani movie Love Mein Ghum produced by Reema Khan, one of our finest Pakistani movie actress, this movie is considered to be of the highest budget this year or over the decade. The movie has been shot in Malaysia.
We have also seen our stars migrating to Bollywood and making films there rather then Lollywood just because they are not provided with the good casting team and good choice and budget. Ali Zafar has worked on a lot of projects abroad like Tere Bin Laden and Mere Brother ki Dulhan. However the Pakistani small screen cinema has made a worth applaud progress over the years by introducing many channels. These channels hav entertained the Pakistani audience here in Pakistan and abroad with extremely good dramas like Alpha Bravo Charlie, Waris, Meri zaat zara e benishan have got the highest audience.
Pakistani Cinema has surely got a lot of potential and talent and it can be taken somewhere else like on the top but in a long time like 2 to 3 decades. However we can see the all the progress with the release of good films this year.
Lance Naik Muhammad Mehfuz (October 25, 1944 – December 8, 1971) was an infantry soldier of Pakistan Army who embraced martyrdom at the Western Front during the 1971 Indo-Pak conflict. Mehfuz was born in Pind Malikan near Rawalpindi. He joined Pakistan Army on October 25, 1962.
During then 1971 Indo-Pak war, Lance Naik Muhammad Mehfuz was serving in ‘A’ Company of 15 Punjab Regiment. His unit was deployed at Wagah-Attari sector during the war. Though cease-fire was announced on December 16, 1971 but India was taking advantage of cease-fire by creeping into Pakistan’s territory. On the night of December 17-18, ‘A’ company was ordered to occupy Phul Kanjri village. Mehfuz who was posted in Platoon no. 3 was assigned in the leading assault party with his platoon comrades. The assault party was made to face heavy fire from the enemy pill boxes. These concrete pill boxes were inflicting heavy casualties to whole company which was only 70 yards away from the enemy position. During the assault, Indian forces had stated artillery fire causing setbacks to company’s plan. While advancing, Mehfuz lost his machine-gun due enemy shell; see this he charged towards the enemy bunker which was inflicting heavy casualties. By the time he had reached enemy bunker, his both legs were wounded by shell sprinters but he still managed to encounter his enemy. Though unarmed, he bayoneted enemy soldiers and neutralized fire from enemy bunker, thus making way for his company’s advance. He was given medical treatment but he died on the night of December 17, 1971.
He was buried in his hometown Pindi Malikan with full military honors. He was posthumously awarded Nishan e Haider for the supreme sacrificed by him. A garrison of Pakistan Army has been named after in Lahore which is known as Mehfuz Shaheed Garrison.
Sawar Muhammad Hussain (June 18, 1949 – December 10, 1971) was a driver in the Armored Corps of Pakistan Army who got martyred during the 1971 Indo-Pak War. Sawar was born in Dhok Pir Bakash (now Dhok Muhammad Hussain Janjua) in Gujar Khan. He joined Pakistan Army on September 3, 1966 at a young age of 17 years. He was given training of driving military vehicles and was posted in a unit of Armored Crops. Despite of just being a driver, Sawar always used to participate keenly in military exercises where he learned different arts of warfare.
Sawar Muhammad was posted in 20 Lancers when 1971 war broke out between India and Pakistan. His unit was deployed in the frontline are of Zafarwal-Shakargarh. Using his experience of military exercises, Sawar used to engage enemy by taking over a machine gun whenever such an oppurnity was available.
During the war he delivered ammunition to forward trenches despite of heaving shelling by Indian forces. He always used to volunteer for patrols and dangerous missions which earned him high name in the 20 Lancers. On December 10, 1971 he spotted enemy tanks near a village called Harar Khurd. He informed the second-in-command of his units about the advancing tanks. He on his own initiative started directing fire to anti-tank gun crew on enemy tanks. He kept on directing fire and was hit by a burst of machine gun fire from an advancing enemy tank. Later he embraced martyrdom at around 4:00 PM that day.
Sawar Muhammad Hussain was buried in his ancestral town. He is the first soldier (foot soldier) of Pakistan Army to receive country’s highest gallantry award of Nishan-e-Haider.
Major Muhammad Akram (April 14, 1938 – Decemer 1971) was a Pakistani Army officer who embraced martyrdom during the Indo-Pak war of 1971. Muhammad Akram was born in Dinga city of District Gujrat while he belonged to village Nakka Kalan of District Jhelum, Punjab. He was born in an Awan tribe of Pakistan.
After completing his early education, Akram appeared for Pakistan Army selection and was selected for the 1963 batch of Pakistan Military Academy. Akram graduated from PMA and was commissioned in the Frontier Force Regiment on October 16, 1963. While being posted at Lahore cantonment, Major Muhammad Akram (then Captain) participated in the 1965 Indo-Pak War. He was commander of a small company which preformed successful operations against the Indian Army.
In 1969, Captain Muhammad Akram was promoted to the rank of Major and was soon posted to East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). After the start of civil war in East Pakistan, Major Muhammad Akram’s unit 4 FF was placed in the forward area of Hilli district as war was impending between India and Pakistan. After the unannounced attack by India of East Pakistan, he and his men were subjected to heavy air, artillery and armour attacks from Indian Army. For almost fortnight, Major Muhammad Akram and his troops were able to force Indians back and inflicting heavy damages to them. He got injured during the battle and later embraced martyrdom. He was buried in the village of District Bogra of East Pakistan (now Bangaldesh). He was posthumously awarded Nishan-e-Haider by the Pakistani government. He is the only soldier of Pakistan Army who is buried in foreign land but received Nishan e Haider. In his remembrance, a memorial was built in the city of Jhelum.
Major Raja Aziz Bhatti (1928 – September 11, 1965) was a Pakistani Army officer who embraced martyrdom during the Indo-Pak war of 1965. Major Aziz Bhatti was born to a Muslim Rajput family in Hong Kong, his family moved to Pakistan before its independence in 1947. Major Aziz Bhatti’s father Abdullah Bhatti was a school master. Major Aziz Bhatti joined Pakistan Army in 1948. He had excellent student career in the then newly built Pakistan Military Academy, Abbotabad; he was awarded Sword of Honor and Norman Medal by the Prime Minister Liaqat Ali Khan. After passing out in 1950, Major Aziz Bhatti was commisned in Punjab Regiment. During his career of 15 years in the army; Major Bhatti served at various command and staff appointments of the Pakistan Army.
Major Aziz Bhatti was appointed as the Company Commander of a Punjab regiment before the outbreak of war between India and Pakistan in 1965. As the tensions escalated between the two countries, forces were ordered to get themselves prepared for any eventuality. Major Aziz Bhatti was given the command of Burki sector of Lahore. He laid a perfect model of defensive tactics and used every available thing for it. After the start of war Major Aziz Bhatti decided to stay with his forward troops instead of going back to Command post. He led his troops and did not sleep for almost three days. He and his men defend the strategically important BRB canal against enemy attacks for five days and nights despite of repeated attacks by Indian army.
In order to see every moment of Indian forces, Major Aziz Bhatti kept himself on elevated positions. He directed accurate fire to artillery which resulted in heavy loss of men and tanks to Indian forces. He kept leading his men from the front despite of heavy artillery fire from enemy positions. On September 11 as he was directing artillery fire he was hit by an enemy tank shell in the chest and embraced martyrdom.
He was buried in his village Ladian, Gujrat. He left 6 children and a wife. He later awarded Nishan-e-Haider for the supreme sacrifice offered by him. He is the only recipient of Nishan-e-Haider from the 1965 Indo-Pak War.
Captain Raja Muhammad Sarwar Khan Bhatti (1910 – July 27, 1948) is the first recipient of Nishan-e-Haider. Sarwar Khan was born in Singhori village, Tehsil Gujar Khan, District Rawalpindi. Born in Rajput family, Captain Sarwar went to join Indian Military in 1942 and was commissioned in the Punjab Regiment of Indian Army in 1944. After independence of Pakistan in 1947, Captain Sarwar Khan was transferred to Pakistan Army.
Soon after the partition of sub-continent, tensions raised between India and Pakistan over the disputed area of Kashmir. Indian troops landed in Kashmir and took control of Kashmir. Flared by anger, patriotism and love for their Kashmiri brothers, Pakistan Army was ordered to intervene on the order of the then Governor-General Muhammad Ali Jinnah. During the early days of Kashmir war, Captain Sarwar Khan was busy in doing a course at a military school in Murre. He requested to be deployed with his parent unit which was fighting with Indians at the Uri sector but his requests were turn down. After repeated requests he was finally sent back to join his unit.
After joining his unit at Uri sector, Captain Sarwar Khan was appointed as the Company Commander of the 2nd battalion. He led successful attacks on Indian army inflicting heavy damages to the enemy. On the fateful night of July 28, 1948, Captain Sarwar Khan launched an attack on the strongly fortified position of enemy at the Uri sector. Enemy responded with heavy machine gun and mortar fire but he and his men made their way through barbed wire barrier which was hindering their movement. In this process, Captain Muhammad Sarwar Khan received a burst of heavy machine gun in his fire and lost his life.
Captain Muhammad Sarwar Khan was posthumously awarded Nishan e Haider for the bravery shown by him
Major Tufail Muhammed Shaheed (1914 – August 7, 1958) was born in Hoshiarpur, Punjab (India). In 1943, Tufail Muhammed got commissioned in the 16 Punjab Regiment of Indian Army. After the independence of Pakistan, Tufail Muhammed was transferred to Pakistan Army. During his distinguished career he served at various command and staff appointments in the Army.
In 1958, Major Tufail Muhammed was posted to East Pakistan as the Company Commander of a battalion of East Pakistan Rifles (a Para military force for border security). During his command, Indian troops violating international borders captured a village in the area of Laskhmipur of East Pakistan. On August 7, 1958 Major Tufail launched an assault to force withdrawal of Indian troops from the village; He divided his men in to three groups and attacked Indian troops during the dark hours of August 7th. Their groups was able to reach enemy without being detected but as the firefight started, the group came under heavy fire and Major Tufail received three bullets in his stomach. Despite being shot in stomach, he kept moving and was able to silence the incoming fire from machine gun. By tactically using grenades, Major Tufail was able to destroy key enemy posts. When he saw enemy commander inflicting heavy casualties to his men he crawled towards enemy posting and engaged enemy in hand-to-hand battle which resulted in killing of commander of the Indian Army. He killed him by hitting him his steel helmet on the face. He continued the operation with his men which resulted in withdrawal of Indian forces. Despite being heavily injured, he called his junior officer “I have completed my duty; the enemy is on the run.” He was rushed to hospital but he embraced shahadat.
Major Muhammed Tufail was buried with full mitialry honors in his native city Burewala. His native town has been named after him and is now known as Tufailabad. Major Muhammed Tufail was posthumously awarded Nishan-e-Haider and he is the only person to get this award for an action outside the Indo-Pak wars.
|Origin of River Jehlum||Basin of River Jehlum||Length of River Jehlum||River System|
|South Western Jammu and Kashmir||Pakistan and India||813 kilometers/ 505 miles||Indus River System|
It is on the western end of all the five rivers of Punjab. It is a tributary of River Chenab and passes through the Jehlum district of Pakistan. It originates from a spring in the south western side of Jammu Kashmir. It flows through Srinagar and Lake Wular then enter Pakistan through a narrow gorge. River Neelam joins River Jehlum at Domel in Muzzafarabad and then the River Kunhar of Kaghan Valley.
The river also connects Pakistan with the Azad Kashmir at the Kohala Bridge which is east of circle Bakote. River Poonch joins it and then flowing through the district of Mirpur it flows into the Mangla dam. It enters the Jehlum district in Punjab Province flowing through the plains forming a boundary between Sindh Sagar Doabs and Chaj. It then joins River Chenab at Trimmu of Jhang district, which in turn joins River Sutlej forming the Panjnad by joining River Indus at Mithankot.
As a result of the Indus Basin Project few control structures are built to the waters of the Jehlum, namely:
- Mangla dam: It was built in 1967 and is considered to be one of the largest earth fill dams of the world with storage capacity of about 5.9 million acre feet.
- Trimmu Barrage: It was built in 1939 and located at the confluence with the River Chenab near the town of Mari Shah Sakhira. It has the capacity of discharging a maximum of 645,000 cubic feet/s i.e. 18,000 cubic meters/s.
- Rasul Barrage: It was completed in 1967 and a flow of about 850,000 cubic feet/s i.e 24,000 cubic meters/s.
- Harahpur Bridge: It is also called the Victoria Bridge and was constructed in 1933. The location is about 5 kilometers from Malakwal near the village of Chak Nizam. It is about a kilometers long and mainly used by the Pakistan Railways with a small passage for light vehicles as well.
Computer is no doubt the greatest and the most revolutionary invention of all times, changing the face of society all over the world. Today, it is nearly impossible to compete in any field of work without computer know-how. It is the era of globalization where the whole world is in direct contact with every one around the world through computers. It is the time of information and technology and computer education is the key to advancement in the economic development of every country.
Pakistan is one of the top countries producing excellent software consultants and engineers. There are quite a number of computer colleges throughout the country in both public and private sector. Some of them are among the finest universities of the world in computer education.
Given below is the list of top 20 computer Colleges of Pakistan. This list is not in the ranking order.
1. GIKI-Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering and Sciences (Topi, Islamabad)
2. NUST-National University of Science & Technology (Islamabad)
3. Air University (Islamabad)
4. UET-Department of Computer Sciences (Lahore)
5. FAST-Institute of Computer Sciences
6. COMSATS-Institute of Information technology (Islamabad)
7. National University of Computer & Emerging Sciences (Islamabad)
8. LUMS-Lahore University of Management & Sciences
9. Fauji Foundation Institute of Management & Computer Sciences(Islamabad)
10. IBM-College of Computer science & Information system (Karachi)
11. Aptech Computer Education (Lahore)
12. Sarhad University of Science & Information technology (Peshawar)
13. Pearl Institute of Management & Information technology (Quetta)
14. University of Central Punjab-PICS (Lahore)
15. Computer Training Centre Institute (Islamabad)
16. Beaconhouse Informatics (Lahore,Karachi)
17. Royal Institute of Computer (Karachi)
18. Union College of Computer (Karachi)
19. Bahria Institute of Management & Computer Sciences (Karachi)
20. College of Computer Sciences (Gujranwala)