The history of Pakistani Airlines started with the merging of Orient Airways with international airlines cooperation of Pakistan. At that time Pakistan International Airlines was the only operator that provided travelling facilities to passengers. Meanwhile private airlines emerged and started their services in Pakistan. However, currently there exist only three main Pakistani airlines which include PIA, Air Blue and Shaheen Air.
Pakistan International Airlines (PIA), only airline owned by the Government of Pakistan, provides its travelling facilities to 42 international destinations and 27 domestic flights are operated by it. It has an employment rate of 18,043 according to the survey (2008). The main bases of PIA lay in three big cities of Pakistan namely Lahore, Karachi and Islamabad.
Air blue is the privately owned Pakistani airline which is the second largest domestic airline of Pakistan. It provides its services to five international destinations and four domestic places. Besides, another main Pakistani airline is Shaheen Air that is the private-based cooperation. Like Air Blue, it operates among main cities of Pakistan and schedules international flights to five or six destinations. The main base of both of these privately owned airlines exist at Jinnah International Airport in Karachi.
In addition to the currently serving airlines described above, there were few others that do not serve anymore due to some reasons. They include Aero Asia International, Pearl Air, Pakistan Airways and some others. Some of them closed their services long time ago and some had been suspended prior to poor management issues.
There are only two rivers in Karachi; one is Malir river and the other one is River Lyari. It is a small stream flowing through Karachi from north east to the center and drops into the Arabian Sea at the Monora channel. The river is approximately 30 miles or 50 kilometers long and it carries collected water from the rains in the catchment area.
The river had fish and clean water with farming done on its bank until 1950. After the independence Karachi bacame the capital of Pakistan and a huge number of refugees came into the city. The river’s ecology started to transform and slowly and steadily it discharged sewage, waste water and industrial wastes.
Due to some occasional floods in the surroundings of the river and the havoc caused by heavy rains in 1977 flood barriers were build along River Lyari. An express was planned with a length of about 16.5 kilometers through the city along both sides of the river banks of Lyari many years back. The work started in 2002 and got completed in 2009. This river is not as beautiful as many other rivers in Pakistan. However, Lyari river has its own importance due to its location and due to which it is considered among one of the most important rivers in Pakistan.
The industrial sector of Pakistan accounts for almost 24% of the GDP. The largest industry in the country is cotton textile and apparel accounting for almost 66% of the exports and about 40% of the employed labour. The other major industries include cement, edible oil, fertilizers, steel, tobacco, chemical, sports goods, machinery and food processing.
The Government is trying to diversify the industrial base and improve our export capacity. Privatization of parastatal units is being done on a large scale and growth has accelerated in the overall industrial output.
Lets take a look at the important industries of the country.
Cotton Industry of Pakistan
Cotton industry is the leading industry of Pakistan. We are not only self sufficient in fulfilling the local demands of cotton goods but are also exporting to other countries and earn foreign exchange through this sector. Due to the perfect climate and soil 1.3 million out of 5 million farmers in Pakistan cultivate cotton. On the average around 30 to 40 percent of the cotton is consumed locally and the rest is exported in raw or finished form to many countries of the world.
In the past most of the raw cotton was exported but now more emphasis is being given on the export of finished products as value added commodities bring in much more earnings for the country. Pakistan earns 55% of its foreign exchange through exports of raw cotton, cotton yarn, cloth and garments and other cotton products, which together make up about 70% of Pakistan’s total exports per year.
Pakistan is the 5th largest producer of cotton, 3rd largest exporter of raw cotton, 4th largest consumer of cotton and the largest exporter of cotton yarn.
Cotton industry has four main processes, including:
- Ginning: Cotton lint is separated from the seeds.
- Spinning: Cotton fibres are turned into yarn.
- Weaving: Cotton yarn is woven into cloth.
- Garment-manufacturing: The woven cloth is finally given shape of clothes.
Pakistan has shown remarkable growth in the production of cotton products. Spinning industry has shown great improvements in its production during last five years and an increase in its capacity from 5.27M.spindles and 77000 rotors in 1990 to 8.63M spindles and 132000 rotors in 1995. Same is with the production of yarn; it also showed an increase in its production from 1055.23M.K.Gs in 1990 to 1415.20M.K.Gs in 1995.
Currently there are 493 textile units working in Pakistan, out of which 53 are composite units, 410 are the spinning mills and 30 are the waste spinning units. There are around 700 spindles, 27,000 looms in the mills sector, and 250,000 in the non mills sector, 700 knitwear units, 4000 garments units, 650 dyeing and finishing units and around 1000 ginneries. These units are mostly in the Province of Punjab. Large numbers of textile mills are also present in and around Karachi, as it is a metropolitan city and have a sea port with transportation being much simpler than other cities. Other main cities for this sector are Faisalabad and Hyderabad and both have mills close to the cotton producing areas.
Cotton industry is facing many problems that include inconsistent production of cotton crop, improper system of stabilizing the prices of cotton and yarn, lack of timely modernization of the industrial machineries, lack of skilled labour and the most prominent current problem is load shedding of electricity and natural gas. Pakistan is also facing a decline in the production of cotton in the last 4-5 years and the local consumption is increasing as compared to India whose production gained prominent increase in the same period.
It is also facing a recession phase because of its prices. It is under a fierce competition with the countries with low cost prices as Pakistani products are comparatively high in price due to high cost of electricity, instable political and financial circumstances and untimely changes in the terms and conditions of exports.
The Qassaban Mosque was constructed in the late 18th century in Saddar, Karachi. At that time too Karachi showed signs of being a cosmopolitan city. Followers of different religions lived peacefully and Temples, Cathedrals, Synagogues, Parsi Dar-e-Meher and Mosques formed the architecture of the place. Saddar area was mainly inhabited by non-Muslims but when the Muslim community grew, the Jamia Masjid Qassaban was constructed. As the name Qassaban suggests, the Muslims living there were mainly butchers. Along with many other mosques in Pakistan this one is considered as the best in reflecting the local architecture.
The architecture of the mosque is heavily inspired by Italian Renaissance and the small dome which looks more like a cupola was the only sign that it was a Muslim place of worship. Minarets were added to the structure later. People are aware of the historic importance of the mosque and are doing their utmost to preserve what is left of the original structure. The exterior of the mosque has retained most of the original work while the interior has undergone many changes.
Jamia Masjid Qassaban is not a masterpiece of architecture, it is a beautiful building which reminds you of the good old times when Karachi was a peaceful city.
Tauseef Ahmed was a former right arm off spin bowler from Pakistan. He made his debut against Australia in Karachi and in the very first test took seven wickets thus playing a crucial role in Pakistan’s victory. His career best innings was that against Sri Lanka when he took 6 wickets while giving away only 42 runs. Another memorable innings from Tauseef Ahmed is his match winning performance against India in 1986-87. Tauseef Ahmed took 9 wickets including the prized wicket of Sunil Gavaskar whom he trapped at 96.
Tauseef Ahmed played 34 test matches and took 93 wickets including 5 wickets in an innings thrice. His ODI record shows 70 matches and 55 wickets. This crafty off spinner was called the Lionel Richie of Pakistani team because of his close resemblance to the singer. Although Tauseef Ahmed is remembered as a great off spinner, his most fond memory in Pakistan for the Pakistani cricket fan is the fact that he was at the other end of the crease when Miandad hit his famous smashing six off Chetan Sharma to defeat India in Sharjah Cup final of 1986. It was such a marvelous victory for Pakistan that still a lot of people share the details of that victory, giving due attention to the one single Tauseef took to hand over the strike to legendary Javed Miandad who struck a sixer off the last ball.
|Location||Water type||Surface Area|
|Thatta, Sindh||Brackish||1,321 Hectares
This is an important brackish water lake situated in District Thatta of Sindh.It is at a distance of about 85 kilometers from Karachi. In 1977 this lake was declared as a wildlife sanctuary by the Government of Sind, to protect and conserve wild life in and around the place. It is a beautiful tourist attraction of the region.
Initially the local fishermen were allowed to catch fish from the lake,because it was there livelihood. But they were not allowed to disturb the birds in any way. These strict rules to protect the birds have moved their number to a fairly large scale. The lake is the property of the Government of Pakistan and initially shooting was also allowed but then in 1971 it was forbidden. The Department of Wildlife Sindh has employed special staff for regular monitoring of this important santuary and these employees are given quarters to live near the lake.
Orionthologists love this lake because of the presence of so mant species of birds. This lake is home to variety of migrating and resident birds like Swans, Qual Wigeon, Spoon bill, Osprey,Common Teal, White-eyed Bazzard, Storks, Pelicans, Black headed Gull, Curlew,Common Crane, Avocet, Grey Partridge etc
Engineering is one field where the professionals are constantly discovering ways to improve the standard of living by creating bold and innovative solutions that connect science with life. In Pakistan there are several engineering universities in various parts of the country providing high standard and up to date education to the students. PEC – Pakistan Engineering Council regulates the educational courses of these universities and is constantly striving to promote and improve the quality of education in the area of engineering and technology.
Some of these institutions are recognized throughout the world and they also attract foreign students. Given below is the list of the top engineering universities of Pakistan. Please note that it is not in any kind of order.
1. PIEAS-Pakistan Institute of Engineering & Applied Sciences (Islamabad)
2. NUST-National University of Science & Technology (Islamabad)
3. GIKI-Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering and Sciences (Topi)
4. NED-Nadirshaw Edulji Dinshaw,University of Engineering & Technology (Karachi)
5. UET-University of Engineering & Technology (Lahore)
6. SZABIST-Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science & Technology (Karachi)
7. Quaid-e-Awan University of Engineering Science & Technology(Nawabshah)
8. Sir Syed University of Engineering & Technology
9. Center for Advance Studies in Engineering & technology (Islamabad & Quetta)
10. National University of Science (Islamabad)
11. University of Engineering & Technology (Peshawar)
12. National University of Science & Technology (Rawalpindi)
13. Mehran University Engineering & Technology(Jamshoro)
14. University of Engineering & Technology (Taxila)
15. National University of Computer & Emerging Sciences (Islamabad)
16. COMSATS Institute of Engineering & technology (Islamabad,Abbottabad)
17. NWFP University of Engineering & Technology (Peshawar)
18. Balochistan University of Engineering & Technology(Khuzdar)
19. Kohat University of Engineering & Technology (Kohat)
20. Pakistan Navy Engineering College (Karachi)
Computer is no doubt the greatest and the most revolutionary invention of all times, changing the face of society all over the world. Today, it is nearly impossible to compete in any field of work without computer know-how. It is the era of globalization where the whole world is in direct contact with every one around the world through computers. It is the time of information and technology and computer education is the key to advancement in the economic development of every country.
Pakistan is one of the top countries producing excellent software consultants and engineers. There are quite a number of computer colleges throughout the country in both public and private sector. Some of them are among the finest universities of the world in computer education.
Given below is the list of top 20 computer Colleges of Pakistan. This list is not in the ranking order.
1. GIKI-Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering and Sciences (Topi, Islamabad)
2. NUST-National University of Science & Technology (Islamabad)
3. Air University (Islamabad)
4. UET-Department of Computer Sciences (Lahore)
5. FAST-Institute of Computer Sciences
6. COMSATS-Institute of Information technology (Islamabad)
7. National University of Computer & Emerging Sciences (Islamabad)
8. LUMS-Lahore University of Management & Sciences
9. Fauji Foundation Institute of Management & Computer Sciences(Islamabad)
10. IBM-College of Computer science & Information system (Karachi)
11. Aptech Computer Education (Lahore)
12. Sarhad University of Science & Information technology (Peshawar)
13. Pearl Institute of Management & Information technology (Quetta)
14. University of Central Punjab-PICS (Lahore)
15. Computer Training Centre Institute (Islamabad)
16. Beaconhouse Informatics (Lahore,Karachi)
17. Royal Institute of Computer (Karachi)
18. Union College of Computer (Karachi)
19. Bahria Institute of Management & Computer Sciences (Karachi)
20. College of Computer Sciences (Gujranwala)
The importance of higher education cannot be denied by anyone. The Government of Pakistan established the Higher Education Commission in 2002 to evaluate, improve and promote higher education in the country. The traditional bachelor’s degree of 2-yr program has been replaced by the Honor’s Bachelor’s degree awarded after 3 yrs of full time study in arts, humanities, sciences, business and commerce.
In Pakistan, there are about 1882 colleges, out of which 1025 in the public and 857 in the private sector. These institutions are providing under graduate and post graduate courses and some also offer professional courses like MS and MBA.
Though the list of colleges available in the country is quite large but here are the top 20 general colleges of Pakistan with no particular order:
1. Government College (Lahore)
2. Kinnaird College for women(Lahore)
3. Forman Christian College (Lahore)
4. Saint Joseph College (Karachi)
5. Lahore College for women (Lahore)
6. Home Economics Colleges for women
7. PECHS College (Karachi)
8. DHA College (Karachi)
9. Punjab Group of Colleges-University of Central Punjab
10. Aitchison College(Lahore)
11. Adamjee Science College for Boys(Karachi)
12. Islamabad Model College
13. OPF Boys College (Islamabad)
14. Dehli Science College for Boys (Karachi)
15. DJ Science College (Karachi)
16. FG College (Islamabad)
17. Islamabad College of Boys
18. Islamabad College of Arts & Sciences
19. Governement College (Quetta)
20. Peshawar Model Degree College
Business education plays a vital role in building a successful career in today’s highly challenging and competitive business world. In Pakistan, its importance was realized the past decade and several business schools were established throughout the country in both private and public sector.
Today there are about 87 HEC recognized business schools, out of which 59 belong to the private and 28 to the public sector. These schools provide Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) i.e. 3 or 4 yr program and Master of Business Administration (MBA) i.e. 1 or 2 yrs program.
The top Business schools in Pakistan are listed below. These school are listed in no particular ranking order:
1. LUMS-Lahore University of Management Sciences (Lahore)
2. IBA-Institute of Business Administration (Karachi)
3. Iqra University, (Karachi)
4. LSE-Lahore School of Economics
. NUST-National University (Business School Islamabad)
6. UMT-University of Management & Technology (Lahore)
7. SZABIST-Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science & technology (Karachi)
8. IBM-Institute of Business Management (Karachi)
9. Institute of Management Sciences (Lahore)
10. PIM-Pakistan Institute of Management (Karachi)
11. FAST- NU Lahore Business school
12. University of Karachi –School of Business
13. University of Punjab-Institute of Business Administration
14. FCC-Forman Christian college-School of Management
15. University of Central Punjab-PCBA
16. CBM-College of Business Management (Karachi)
17. Iqra University (Islamabad)
18. Institute of Management sciences(Peshawar)
19. UCL-University college Lahore
20. Bahauddin Zakariya University (Multan)