It is an important stream in the Pothohar region in Pakistan and it drains most of its water. It originates from a small village Bun near the lower hills of Patriata and Murree. It also provides water to the Simly Dam which is a main reservoir of Islamabad city.
The river cuts through a mountain range near the Pharwala fort which is called Soan which is a natural phenomenon. It is not possible for a stream to cut through a high mountain which proves that River Soan was there before the formation of this mountain range. It continued its path by cutting throught the mountains through millions of years.
Near Sihala Islamabad highway crosses the stream at the famous Cock Pull Bridge. Lai stream joins it near Soan Camp and then it flows through a big curve and reach Kalabagh and drops into the River Indus. The stream is relatively small in size i.e. 250 kilometers. It is hardly used for irrigation purposes because of its tortuous path and shallow bed. Many species of fish are present in River Soan with Rahu and Kingfisher being the main fish. The river forms the northern border of District Bannu also. The Soan Culture is one of the oldest evidence of human civilizations which is about 100,000 – 150,000 years old and it was found in the River Soan.
The Pharwala Fort is situated 40km from the city of Rawalpindi in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. It was once the capital of the Gakhar Estate. The fort was built in the 15th century on the ruins of an old Hindu fort. The site of Pharwala Fort was chosen wisely as a small Himalayan range stood guard on one side and the River Soan defended it from the other making it difficult to attack and capture.
Gakhars were the rulers of Northern Punjab and some areas of Eastern Punjab were also under their control. When the first Moghul Emperor Babar invaded India, he attacked the fort but was repelled by the strong Gakhar army; his second attack was successful and the fort was conquered. After reconciliations however, the fort was handed over to the Gakhars who remained the loyal friends of the Moghuls. In 1825, the Pharwala Fort was captured by the Sikhs.
At present the fort is in a dilapidated condition. The apathy of governments past and present has resulted in the deterioration of many landmarks. It is up to us citizens now to save these historic buildings. Located in Kahuta district, Pharwala Fort can only be visited by Pakistani citizens.