Chief Ministers perform the important duty of looking after the provinces. Their other duties include maintaining peace and harmony among the different communities living in the province and safeguarding the rights of the province. Currently there are five chief ministers in Pakistan; their brief introduction is as follows:
Syed Qaim Ali Shah: This seasoned politician is the chief minister of Sindh province of Pakistan. Born in 1935 in an influential family in Khairpur Sindh, Syed Qaim Ali Shah did his LLB from Karachi and started practicing law. He joined the Pakistan People’s Party in 1967 and is one of its earliest members. Qaim Ali Shah took oath as the 23rd chief minister of Sindh on 7th April 2008. This is his second term as a chief minister, previously he held this position during Benazir Bhutto’s government.
Shahbaz Sharif: The chief minister of Punjab Shahbaz Sharif belongs to PML-N group. He was born in 1950 in Lahore. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister in 2008 but he was ousted from his office as he was declared ineligible to contest elections by the Supreme Court of Pakistan. However he obtained a stay order and returned to his office which he holds to date. This is Shahbaz Sharif’s second term as a Chief Minister; earlier he held this post from 1997-1999 when his brother Nawaz Sharif was the prime minister. He is an astute politician who has worked for the betterment of Punjab.
Ameer Haider Khan Hoti: Ameer Haider Khan the son of a former Federal Minister Azam Khan Hoti is the 21st chief minister of Khyber Pakhtun Khawa province of Pakistan. He belongs to an illustrious family of politicians and is a member of the Awami National Party (ANP).
Nawab Aslam Raisani: The tribal head of Raisani Tribe and a member of PPP, Nawab Aslam Raisani is the 13th chief minister of Balochistan. Being a veteran politician with a deep understanding of the tribal culture and traditions; Raisani has introduced modern methods of farming in Balochistan.
Syed Mehdi Shah: Syed Mehdi Shah a member of the ruling PPP is the first chief minister of Gilgit Baltistan. He was appointed by the former Prime Minister of Pakistan Syed Yusuf Raza Gillani.
The history of Pakistani Airlines started with the merging of Orient Airways with international airlines cooperation of Pakistan. At that time Pakistan International Airlines was the only operator that provided travelling facilities to passengers. Meanwhile private airlines emerged and started their services in Pakistan. However, currently there exist only three main Pakistani airlines which include PIA, Air Blue and Shaheen Air.
Pakistan International Airlines (PIA), only airline owned by the Government of Pakistan, provides its travelling facilities to 42 international destinations and 27 domestic flights are operated by it. It has an employment rate of 18,043 according to the survey (2008). The main bases of PIA lay in three big cities of Pakistan namely Lahore, Karachi and Islamabad.
Air blue is the privately owned Pakistani airline which is the second largest domestic airline of Pakistan. It provides its services to five international destinations and four domestic places. Besides, another main Pakistani airline is Shaheen Air that is the private-based cooperation. Like Air Blue, it operates among main cities of Pakistan and schedules international flights to five or six destinations. The main base of both of these privately owned airlines exist at Jinnah International Airport in Karachi.
In addition to the currently serving airlines described above, there were few others that do not serve anymore due to some reasons. They include Aero Asia International, Pearl Air, Pakistan Airways and some others. Some of them closed their services long time ago and some had been suspended prior to poor management issues.
Pakistan has a rich cultural heritage and it is depicted in the form of marvelous structure built for the defense of a state or a country. There are many forts located all around the world that are of historical significance. The main purpose behind the construction of forts was to protect a country from invaders and enemies. However, they serve another purpose also which involves making a display of one’s architecture as depicted by its significance in a culture. Pakistan is proud to have enormous forts with beautiful architecture and rich cultural significance.Ranikot, the largest fort of the world is also situated in Pakistan. The reason behind the accumulation of forts in Pakistan lies in its history. As Pakistan initially was a part of Indo-Pak sub-continent, it had been ruled over by various monarchs including Mughals who were fond of art and architecture. Here a list of the famous forts of Pakistan has been presented naming only the top ten forts of Pakistan with their respective locations. These forts are a place of frequent local visits along with being famous tourist attractions
1) Ranikot Fort located in the province of Sindh.
2) Baltit Fort situated in Hunza Valley
3) Royal Fort located in Lahore
4) Rohtas Fort situated in Dina
5) Multan Fort located in Multan
6) Rawat Fort in Rawalpindi
7) Phrasal Fort in Rawalpindi
8) Red Fort of Muzaffarabad
9) Attock Fort of Rawalpindi
10) Giri Fort in Taxila
Pakistan has a rich culture and many languages are spoken here by a diversified group of people. Language is a mode of communication through which people living in this world communicate with each other. The ancient languages were consisted mostly of symbols and gestures. With the passage of time, letter and alphabets got developed which gave rise to a lot of languages. Now thousands of languages are being spoken in various parts of the world including Pakistan. There are two official languages in Pakistan namely Urdu and English with various four main regional languages. The four languages that are spoken in the four provinces of Pakistan are Punjabi, Pashtu, Sindhi and Balochi. However, there are other regional languages also that are spoken in various areas of Pakistan. These languages include Kashmiri, Saraiki, Hindko and some others. It is important to note that the majority of population in Pakistan speaks regional or provincial languages other than Urdu. A list of the top ten languages spoken in Pakistan is given below:
1) Punjabi Language spoken mostly in the province of Punjab
2) Pashto Language frequently spoken in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa
3) Sindhi Language predominantly spoken in Sindh province
4) Seraiki Language mostly spoken in Punjab province
5) Urdu Language frequently spoken all over Pakistan. Urdu is Pakistan’s national language.
6) Balochi Language predominantly spoken in Balochistan province
7) Hindko language spoken in hilly areas of Pakistan
8) Kashmiri language spoken in Azad Kashmir and adjacent areas
9) Brahui spoken in Southern suburbs of Pakistan
10) Shina mostly spoken in Giglit-Baltistan
Bollywood is killing our Pakistani film industry says one of our actors; our film industry has been hijacked more appropriately. Many of the cinemas have been closed and Lahore only produces 20 films a year which are of extremely low budget where as Mumbai (Bollywood) produces about 1000 of the fraction with 1.3 billion dollar budget each year.
Our great and famous Pakistani actor Ghulam Mohiudin who has done about 400 hundred Lollywood films says that our films have been replaced by Indian high budget films because our public would not like to go for low budget when they have got a far better option to follow. The legendary Pakistani actors mark 1960’s as the golden era of lollyword when the streets of Lahore were filled with art deco cinemas and packed houses. In the 1980’s we were producing about hundred films each year which were reduced to 20 a few years ago. Although now I see the Pakistani cinema rising up with the release of one of the greatest Pakistani movie Khuda Key Liye directed by Shoaib Mansoor a story of a man who was imprisoned for being a suspect of the 9/11 incident and how his brother claims to be the right Muslim. Though some of our Pakistani directors like Syed Noor and Shoaib Mansoor have tried to build up something that can catch the attention of the public but more effort is required. Today the movie land is found dead with most of them have been made car parks and other shopping malls. In such circumstances no one in the producer’s group dares to bring up money to invest on a film which wouldn’t be watched.
Let’s just imagine if you are given a choice and you have to choose only one i.e. Hollywood greatest movie Avatar and Pakistani film Mein Eik Din Laut Key Ayoonga you will definitely like to go for Avatar just because it is more technical and doesn’t have typical movie idea at least different.
With the release of Pakistani movie Bol we have seen a lot of audience moving around in the cinemas, and the ideas that have been portrayed in the film are quite different far from being certain. With the upcoming cinestar cinemas all around Pakistan there is a vast range of audience seeing entering and spending money. Now with the advancing in the theatres our producers and directors are more likely to take notice on making movies that would captivate the audience. Pakistani movie Love Mein Ghum produced by Reema Khan, one of our finest Pakistani movie actress, this movie is considered to be of the highest budget this year or over the decade. The movie has been shot in Malaysia.
We have also seen our stars migrating to Bollywood and making films there rather then Lollywood just because they are not provided with the good casting team and good choice and budget. Ali Zafar has worked on a lot of projects abroad like Tere Bin Laden and Mere Brother ki Dulhan. However the Pakistani small screen cinema has made a worth applaud progress over the years by introducing many channels. These channels hav entertained the Pakistani audience here in Pakistan and abroad with extremely good dramas like Alpha Bravo Charlie, Waris, Meri zaat zara e benishan have got the highest audience.
Pakistani Cinema has surely got a lot of potential and talent and it can be taken somewhere else like on the top but in a long time like 2 to 3 decades. However we can see the all the progress with the release of good films this year.
Lance Naik Muhammad Mehfuz (October 25, 1944 – December 8, 1971) was an infantry soldier of Pakistan Army who embraced martyrdom at the Western Front during the 1971 Indo-Pak conflict. Mehfuz was born in Pind Malikan near Rawalpindi. He joined Pakistan Army on October 25, 1962.
During then 1971 Indo-Pak war, Lance Naik Muhammad Mehfuz was serving in ‘A’ Company of 15 Punjab Regiment. His unit was deployed at Wagah-Attari sector during the war. Though cease-fire was announced on December 16, 1971 but India was taking advantage of cease-fire by creeping into Pakistan’s territory. On the night of December 17-18, ‘A’ company was ordered to occupy Phul Kanjri village. Mehfuz who was posted in Platoon no. 3 was assigned in the leading assault party with his platoon comrades. The assault party was made to face heavy fire from the enemy pill boxes. These concrete pill boxes were inflicting heavy casualties to whole company which was only 70 yards away from the enemy position. During the assault, Indian forces had stated artillery fire causing setbacks to company’s plan. While advancing, Mehfuz lost his machine-gun due enemy shell; see this he charged towards the enemy bunker which was inflicting heavy casualties. By the time he had reached enemy bunker, his both legs were wounded by shell sprinters but he still managed to encounter his enemy. Though unarmed, he bayoneted enemy soldiers and neutralized fire from enemy bunker, thus making way for his company’s advance. He was given medical treatment but he died on the night of December 17, 1971.
He was buried in his hometown Pindi Malikan with full military honors. He was posthumously awarded Nishan e Haider for the supreme sacrificed by him. A garrison of Pakistan Army has been named after in Lahore which is known as Mehfuz Shaheed Garrison.
Major Shabbir Sharif (April 28, 1943 – December 7, 1971) was a Pakistani Army officer who embraced martyrdom at Western front during the 1971 Indo-Pak. Shabbir Sharif was born in Kunjah town of District Gujrat. He did O-Levels from St. Anthony’s High School, Lahore. He joined Government College, Lahore for further studies but he received call to join Pakistan Military Academy, Kakul before he could complete his studies. Sharif had an outstanding stay at the military academy and was given the prestigious ‘Sword of Honor’ on passing out. He was commissioned in Pakistan Army on April 19, 1964 and was posted to 6th Battalion of the Frontier Force Regiment (FF).
Shabbir Sharif participated in the 1965 Indo-Pak war as a young Lieutenant. He led many successful assaults on Indian forces. During the war, he got injured and was admitted in the Military Hospital but he escaped to rejoin his unit. He was later awarded the Sitara-e-Jurat for his bravery. In 1971, Pakistan Army decided to launch an offensive on the Western front to ease pressure on its forces fighting in the Eastern Front in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). Sharif by then had rose to the rank of Major by then. Major Shabbir Sharif was ordered to capture and attack an important linking bridge called ‘Gurmakhera Bridge’. Major Sharif and his troops carried out a successful assault despite of being outnumbered by Indian troops. In one of the fights with Indian troops, he engaged his counterpart Major Naryan Singh of 4 Jat in a man-to-man battle and was successful in killing him. But in the process his right shoulder was badly burnt. Another offensive was launched by Indian Army to eliminate Major Sharif’s troops on December 6, 1971. He kept leading his troops from the front despite of heaving injuries. On the morning of December 6, 1971 heaving shelling started from Indian tanks. One of the shells landed near Major Shabbir Sharif throwing him and other troops in air. He embraced martyrdom few seconds later after falling on ground. His lasts words were “don’t lose the bridge’.
Major Shabbir Sharif was buried in his hometown with full military honors. He was posthumously awarded ‘Nishan-e-Haider’. He is the only person who has been awarded both highest gallantry awards; Sitara-e-Jurat and Nishan-e-Haider which makes him the highest decorated soldier of Pakistan Armed Forces.
Major Muhammad Akram (April 14, 1938 – Decemer 1971) was a Pakistani Army officer who embraced martyrdom during the Indo-Pak war of 1971. Muhammad Akram was born in Dinga city of District Gujrat while he belonged to village Nakka Kalan of District Jhelum, Punjab. He was born in an Awan tribe of Pakistan.
After completing his early education, Akram appeared for Pakistan Army selection and was selected for the 1963 batch of Pakistan Military Academy. Akram graduated from PMA and was commissioned in the Frontier Force Regiment on October 16, 1963. While being posted at Lahore cantonment, Major Muhammad Akram (then Captain) participated in the 1965 Indo-Pak War. He was commander of a small company which preformed successful operations against the Indian Army.
In 1969, Captain Muhammad Akram was promoted to the rank of Major and was soon posted to East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). After the start of civil war in East Pakistan, Major Muhammad Akram’s unit 4 FF was placed in the forward area of Hilli district as war was impending between India and Pakistan. After the unannounced attack by India of East Pakistan, he and his men were subjected to heavy air, artillery and armour attacks from Indian Army. For almost fortnight, Major Muhammad Akram and his troops were able to force Indians back and inflicting heavy damages to them. He got injured during the battle and later embraced martyrdom. He was buried in the village of District Bogra of East Pakistan (now Bangaldesh). He was posthumously awarded Nishan-e-Haider by the Pakistani government. He is the only soldier of Pakistan Army who is buried in foreign land but received Nishan e Haider. In his remembrance, a memorial was built in the city of Jhelum.
Major Raja Aziz Bhatti (1928 – September 11, 1965) was a Pakistani Army officer who embraced martyrdom during the Indo-Pak war of 1965. Major Aziz Bhatti was born to a Muslim Rajput family in Hong Kong, his family moved to Pakistan before its independence in 1947. Major Aziz Bhatti’s father Abdullah Bhatti was a school master. Major Aziz Bhatti joined Pakistan Army in 1948. He had excellent student career in the then newly built Pakistan Military Academy, Abbotabad; he was awarded Sword of Honor and Norman Medal by the Prime Minister Liaqat Ali Khan. After passing out in 1950, Major Aziz Bhatti was commisned in Punjab Regiment. During his career of 15 years in the army; Major Bhatti served at various command and staff appointments of the Pakistan Army.
Major Aziz Bhatti was appointed as the Company Commander of a Punjab regiment before the outbreak of war between India and Pakistan in 1965. As the tensions escalated between the two countries, forces were ordered to get themselves prepared for any eventuality. Major Aziz Bhatti was given the command of Burki sector of Lahore. He laid a perfect model of defensive tactics and used every available thing for it. After the start of war Major Aziz Bhatti decided to stay with his forward troops instead of going back to Command post. He led his troops and did not sleep for almost three days. He and his men defend the strategically important BRB canal against enemy attacks for five days and nights despite of repeated attacks by Indian army.
In order to see every moment of Indian forces, Major Aziz Bhatti kept himself on elevated positions. He directed accurate fire to artillery which resulted in heavy loss of men and tanks to Indian forces. He kept leading his men from the front despite of heavy artillery fire from enemy positions. On September 11 as he was directing artillery fire he was hit by an enemy tank shell in the chest and embraced martyrdom.
He was buried in his village Ladian, Gujrat. He left 6 children and a wife. He later awarded Nishan-e-Haider for the supreme sacrifice offered by him. He is the only recipient of Nishan-e-Haider from the 1965 Indo-Pak War.