Pakistan has a rich cultural heritage and it is depicted in the form of marvelous structure built for the defense of a state or a country. There are many forts located all around the world that are of historical significance. The main purpose behind the construction of forts was to protect a country from invaders and enemies. However, they serve another purpose also which involves making a display of one’s architecture as depicted by its significance in a culture. Pakistan is proud to have enormous forts with beautiful architecture and rich cultural significance.Ranikot, the largest fort of the world is also situated in Pakistan. The reason behind the accumulation of forts in Pakistan lies in its history. As Pakistan initially was a part of Indo-Pak sub-continent, it had been ruled over by various monarchs including Mughals who were fond of art and architecture. Here a list of the famous forts of Pakistan has been presented naming only the top ten forts of Pakistan with their respective locations. These forts are a place of frequent local visits along with being famous tourist attractions
1) Ranikot Fort located in the province of Sindh.
2) Baltit Fort situated in Hunza Valley
3) Royal Fort located in Lahore
4) Rohtas Fort situated in Dina
5) Multan Fort located in Multan
6) Rawat Fort in Rawalpindi
7) Phrasal Fort in Rawalpindi
8) Red Fort of Muzaffarabad
9) Attock Fort of Rawalpindi
10) Giri Fort in Taxila
Lance Naik Muhammad Mehfuz (October 25, 1944 – December 8, 1971) was an infantry soldier of Pakistan Army who embraced martyrdom at the Western Front during the 1971 Indo-Pak conflict. Mehfuz was born in Pind Malikan near Rawalpindi. He joined Pakistan Army on October 25, 1962.
During then 1971 Indo-Pak war, Lance Naik Muhammad Mehfuz was serving in ‘A’ Company of 15 Punjab Regiment. His unit was deployed at Wagah-Attari sector during the war. Though cease-fire was announced on December 16, 1971 but India was taking advantage of cease-fire by creeping into Pakistan’s territory. On the night of December 17-18, ‘A’ company was ordered to occupy Phul Kanjri village. Mehfuz who was posted in Platoon no. 3 was assigned in the leading assault party with his platoon comrades. The assault party was made to face heavy fire from the enemy pill boxes. These concrete pill boxes were inflicting heavy casualties to whole company which was only 70 yards away from the enemy position. During the assault, Indian forces had stated artillery fire causing setbacks to company’s plan. While advancing, Mehfuz lost his machine-gun due enemy shell; see this he charged towards the enemy bunker which was inflicting heavy casualties. By the time he had reached enemy bunker, his both legs were wounded by shell sprinters but he still managed to encounter his enemy. Though unarmed, he bayoneted enemy soldiers and neutralized fire from enemy bunker, thus making way for his company’s advance. He was given medical treatment but he died on the night of December 17, 1971.
He was buried in his hometown Pindi Malikan with full military honors. He was posthumously awarded Nishan e Haider for the supreme sacrificed by him. A garrison of Pakistan Army has been named after in Lahore which is known as Mehfuz Shaheed Garrison.
Captain Raja Muhammad Sarwar Khan Bhatti (1910 – July 27, 1948) is the first recipient of Nishan-e-Haider. Sarwar Khan was born in Singhori village, Tehsil Gujar Khan, District Rawalpindi. Born in Rajput family, Captain Sarwar went to join Indian Military in 1942 and was commissioned in the Punjab Regiment of Indian Army in 1944. After independence of Pakistan in 1947, Captain Sarwar Khan was transferred to Pakistan Army.
Soon after the partition of sub-continent, tensions raised between India and Pakistan over the disputed area of Kashmir. Indian troops landed in Kashmir and took control of Kashmir. Flared by anger, patriotism and love for their Kashmiri brothers, Pakistan Army was ordered to intervene on the order of the then Governor-General Muhammad Ali Jinnah. During the early days of Kashmir war, Captain Sarwar Khan was busy in doing a course at a military school in Murre. He requested to be deployed with his parent unit which was fighting with Indians at the Uri sector but his requests were turn down. After repeated requests he was finally sent back to join his unit.
After joining his unit at Uri sector, Captain Sarwar Khan was appointed as the Company Commander of the 2nd battalion. He led successful attacks on Indian army inflicting heavy damages to the enemy. On the fateful night of July 28, 1948, Captain Sarwar Khan launched an attack on the strongly fortified position of enemy at the Uri sector. Enemy responded with heavy machine gun and mortar fire but he and his men made their way through barbed wire barrier which was hindering their movement. In this process, Captain Muhammad Sarwar Khan received a burst of heavy machine gun in his fire and lost his life.
Captain Muhammad Sarwar Khan was posthumously awarded Nishan e Haider for the bravery shown by him
Rawat Fort is located on the Potohar Plateau at a distance of 17 km from the city of Rawalpindi. It is believed to be built by the Gakhars; a tribe known for its bravery in the 16th century. A battle between the Afghan warrior Sher Shah Suri and the chief of the Gakhar clan Sultan Sarang Khan was fought at the fort. Sultan Sarang died fighting and is buried here along with his sons. It is a very beautiful fort which carries historic value thus attracts a lot of visitors.
The square shaped fort has two gates with the main gate opening eastwards and a smaller second gate facing north. The fort consists of a three domed mosque, an octagonal building with a single dome; some say this structure is actually a mausoleum. There are many small identical rooms along the inner side of the four walls overlooking a courtyard. Some graves can also be seen inside the fort. If you go up the dilapidated stairs, you will get a magnificent view of the Potohar Plateau and the Mankiala Stupa.
The fort which was once a symbol of pride now stands in shambles mainly due to the negligence of the government and the irresponsible insensitive attitude of the people.
|Location||Water||Catchment Area||Surface Area||Max. depth|
|Reservoir||106.25 sq. m||8.8 sq km||102 ft|
Rawal Lake is an artifical water reservoir of water providing water to the twin cities-Rawalpindi and Islamabad. It is situated within the territory of Margallah Hills National Park. The PTDC has made restaurant and boating facilities to attract visitors. Dam is also constructed on the lake named as Rawal Dam. Several tourists visit this lake and enjoy a nice holidays with their families. Boating, diving, water skating and sailing are the main attractions of the place. These activities are organized by private clubs. Islamabad club offers sporting facilities on the west of the lake.
The lake is surrounded by a well maintained green area with beautiful flowers and trees. The gardens around the lake are full of plants and fountains. Different picnic spots and paths are made for the tourists. The hill top near the lake shows a dynamic scene of Murree hills, Margalla hills and the twin cities.
If you are enjoy bird watching, this could be a right place for you. Large number of birds come to this lake and fly around it all day. To facilitate tourism a park full of walking tracks and sitting area is now located by the side of this beautiful lake.
Engineering is one field where the professionals are constantly discovering ways to improve the standard of living by creating bold and innovative solutions that connect science with life. In Pakistan there are several engineering universities in various parts of the country providing high standard and up to date education to the students. PEC – Pakistan Engineering Council regulates the educational courses of these universities and is constantly striving to promote and improve the quality of education in the area of engineering and technology.
Some of these institutions are recognized throughout the world and they also attract foreign students. Given below is the list of the top engineering universities of Pakistan. Please note that it is not in any kind of order.
1. PIEAS-Pakistan Institute of Engineering & Applied Sciences (Islamabad)
2. NUST-National University of Science & Technology (Islamabad)
3. GIKI-Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering and Sciences (Topi)
4. NED-Nadirshaw Edulji Dinshaw,University of Engineering & Technology (Karachi)
5. UET-University of Engineering & Technology (Lahore)
6. SZABIST-Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science & Technology (Karachi)
7. Quaid-e-Awan University of Engineering Science & Technology(Nawabshah)
8. Sir Syed University of Engineering & Technology
9. Center for Advance Studies in Engineering & technology (Islamabad & Quetta)
10. National University of Science (Islamabad)
11. University of Engineering & Technology (Peshawar)
12. National University of Science & Technology (Rawalpindi)
13. Mehran University Engineering & Technology(Jamshoro)
14. University of Engineering & Technology (Taxila)
15. National University of Computer & Emerging Sciences (Islamabad)
16. COMSATS Institute of Engineering & technology (Islamabad,Abbottabad)
17. NWFP University of Engineering & Technology (Peshawar)
18. Balochistan University of Engineering & Technology(Khuzdar)
19. Kohat University of Engineering & Technology (Kohat)
20. Pakistan Navy Engineering College (Karachi)
The importance of health cannot be denied in any country. In Pakistan this profession is highly respected. Five year training program is required to qualify for a medical doctor degree (MBBS) and four year training for a BDS degree.
In Pakistan there are around 32 medical colleges in public and 36 in the private sector. The government has set up colleges in different parts of the country to cater to the increasing demand of medical doctors. Basically, the good medical colleges are in three main cities: Lahore, Rawalpindi and Karachi. There are some more in other cities as well providing quality education to our future doctors.
Here is a list of top medical colleges of Pakistan:
1. King Edward Medical college (Lahore)
2. Agha Khan Medical college (Karachi)
3. Allama Iqbal Medical college (Lahore)
4. DOW Medical college (Karachi)
5. Fatima Jinnah Medical college (Lahore)
6. Sind Medical college (Karachi)
7. Chanka Medical college (Quetta)
8. Nishtar Medical college (Multan)
9. Rawalpindi Medical college (Rawalpindi)
10. Quaid-e-Azam Medical college (Bahawalpur)
11. Punjab Medical college (Faisalabad)
12. Kabir Medical college (Peshawar)
13. Baqai Medical college (Karachi)
14. D’Mont Dental college (Lahore)
15. Karachi Medical & Dental college (Karachi)
16. Abottabad International Medical college (Abottabad)
17. Zia uddin Medical college (Karachi)
18. Khyber Medical college (Peshawar)
19. Lahore Medical & Dental college (Lahore)
20. PIMS-Quaid-e-Azam Post Medical college (Islamabad)
Majid Khan; a brilliant batsman from Pakistan made his debut against Australia in Karachi in 1964. His father Jahangir Khan used to play cricket for India .Majid’s cousins Imran Khan and Javed Burki were also cricketers.
Majid Khan began his career as a pace bowler but back injury and a dubious bowling technique turned him into an occasional off-spinner and a batsman. Now more focused on batting, Majid Khan soon became brilliant with the bat. He came into limelight when he hit 5 sixes in an over off the bowling of Roger Davis of Glamorgon. He faced the fast bowlers comfortably and one of his career best performances is against the West Indies (1976-77). Majid Khan scored 530 runs in 5 tests in that particular series against an intimidating West Indies team. His highest score in that series was 167 runs in the Georgetown test and he also managed to take 4 wickets for 45 runs in that particular test. Majid Khan played for a couple of English counties, Queensland Australia and domestic teams like PIA, Rawalpindi and Punjab. His best ODI performance was 109 runs against England at Oval in 1974.
Majid Khan used to open the innings for Pakistan along with Sadiq Mohammad; together the couple gave a stable start to the team. Majid Khan played a total of 63 tests for Pakistan and scored 3931 runs (8 centuries) at an average of 38.92. Hid ODI figures are 786 runs in 23 matches with an average of 37.42. Majid Khan has an impressive first class record of more than 27,000 runs with 73 centuries and 128 fifties.
The Khan family became the second after the Headleys (from West Indies) to have three generations of test cricketers when Majid’s son Bazid Khan made his test debut in 2005. Although retired Majid is still actively involved in cricket.
Maqsood Ahmed was a useful all rounder in the first ever cricket team of Pakistan. Before the creation of Pakistan, he played for Southern Punjab in India. He scored a century in his very first match. An aggressive hitter of the ball, Maqsood played a vital role in the recognition of Pakistan as test playing nation when he remained unbeaten on 137 against the visiting MCC.
Maqsood was a hard hitter of the ball and is one of the cricketers who got out on 99 runs. Though a brilliant batsman, his performance in test matches was rather irregular because of his carefree attitude. The English press dubbed him Merry Max. As a test player he only played 16 matches scoring a total of 507 runs. He was also a right arm medium bowler with 3 wickets in test matches to his credit. His first class record is better with 3815 runs in 85 matches including 6 centuries. He took 124 wickets with 7 for 39 being his best bowling figures.
After retiring from cricket, Maqsood Ahmed worked as a commentator and sports journalist. Although his playing time has ended many decads back, he is still respected for his talent. He was also one of the selectors of Pakistan Board in 1981-82. Maqsood Ahmed passed away on 4th January 1999 in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
The beautiful Rawal Dam & the Rawal Lake
The Rawal Dam is situated near Islamabad, Pakistan. It is a multipurpose dam as it supplies drinking water to Islamabad and Rawalpindi and irrigated the land as well. The reservoir of this dam is called Rawal Lake which is famous for its beauty and greenery. Many families come to spend time at this lake as it is one of the most beautiful artificial lakes in the area. The lake is situated in the Margalla Hills National Park.
The Rawal dam is a partly arched gravity dam which is an excellent example of stone masonry. The crest level of the dam is 531 m and the maximum height of the crest is around 40 m. two canals are derived from the dam i.e. Left Bank Canal and the Right Bank Canal. These canals run through the Punjab and irrigate a major area.
Many people come here for fishing in the fishing season. The daily fishing fee is only Rs 10 and it is very economical and every one can afford it. For this reason there are many families that plan their picnics at the Rawal Dam Lake.
Khanpur Dam – utility and the festivity
Khanpur dam one of the most beautiful dams is constructed over River Haro which originates from Abottabad. It is situated near Khanpur town NWFP around 40 km from the federal capital Islamabad The construction of this multipurpose mega project began in 1968 and was completed in 1983 with an estimated cost of Rs 1,352 million.. Khanpur dam has a storage capacity of 106,000acre of water and is 67 feet high. Khanpur dam is of utmost importance as it is the primary source of water supply (both domestic and industrial) to Islamabad and Rawalpindi the twin city. It also irrigates the surrounding agricultural areas.
Known for its picturesque beauty, Khanpur Lake (the reservoir of the dam) has become a popular tourist destination and a picnic spot. The beautiful and serene environment is also a sanctuary for migratory birds during winter. The beautiful lush green gardens carved in the slopes of the mountains surrounding the lake attract a large number of visitors and various activities like boating, angling rock climbing and bird watching have made it all the more alluring.
The Khanpur dam took 15 years before it became functional in 1983. The estimated cost on the dam is around Rs 1352 billion. The dam stores 110,000 acre feet of water and the height of the dam is 167 feet or 51 meter.
Every year a spring carnival is arranged at the Khanpur dam. This carnival attracts many tourists from Pakistan and from around the world and it has many colorful and attractive events to show off.