Attock Fort

Attock fort Pakistan

Some forts were built by the rulers at vulnerable points to protect the territory from invasions; Attock Fort is one of such forts. The Attock District where the fort is constructed was a passage to India. Many invaders like Alexander the Great and the Moghul Emperor Babar entered India through this region.

The Attock Fort was built on Akbar’s orders to guard the area against invasions. The fort is built on a hill along the banks of River Indus and it took two years (1581-1583) to complete. Khawaja Shamsuddin Khawafi supervised its construction.

Not much is known about its interior as the fort is not open to general public. From the outside, it is showing signs of deterioration. Many people raise this point that Attack Fort is located at a beautiful place, and it has such a picturesque surrounding that it can prove to be a very popular picnic and tourism spot. It is located in a region where people can access easily for one day picnics. However, as the fort is not open to the public, it is generally not the case. It can be said with some degree of confidence that Attack fort in Pakistan can add further to its tourism potential, but somehow it is not being utilized as one source.

Canal System of Pakistan

by on January 31, 2010
in Hydropower

Thal_Canal of Pakistan

Irrigation is the man-made supply of water to the land to encourage vegetation. It is a substitute for inadequate or erratic rainfall and is extremely essential for arid regions where there are no rivers and also in humid regions to improve crop output. In Pakistan, 75% of the agricultural land is under irrigation. Three major water sources in Pakistan are rain water, ground water and rivers.

Irrigation system is not something new. Since olden days, people had devised various methods to water their fields. Some traditional methods of irrigation are Persian Wheel, Charsa and Shaduf. Karez is another traditional irrigation system practiced in Baluchistan only. Karez is a horizontal canal located mainly on the foot hills and it brings the under ground water to the surface. Modern advancements in the irrigation system are the perennial canals and tube wells.
Pakistan is basically a dry country with the River Indus and its tributaries being the main source of water supply. Dams both large and small and barrages have been built on the Indus and its tributaries. Large dams such as Tarbela Dam and Mangla Dam are multipurpose plans which not only store water, irrigate lands but also generate hydro electricity. Small dams like Khanpur Dam, Rawal Dam and Hub Dam supply water for agriculture, industrial and domestic purpose and act as a reservoir as well. A hilly terrain is required to build a dam. Barrages on the other hand are built on flat places they also supply water for irrigation purpose and industrial and domestic use. Some barrages are Sukkur Barrage, Guddu Barrage, Kotri Barrage, and Chashma Barrage.

Canals are taken out from rivers, dams and barrages. Pakistan has one of the largest canal irrigation systems in the world. The Inundation canals are taken from rivers and they receive water only when the water level in the rivers is high such as during floods. The perennial canals are taken from dams and barrages and supply water to the fields through out the year. In Pakistan there are 3 large dams, 85 small dams, 19 barrages, 12 inter link canals, 45 canals and 0.7 million tube wells to meet the commercial, domestic and irrigational needs of the country.

River Indus

by on December 29, 2009
in Rivers of Pakistan

indus at chog thumb Pakistan

River Indus, the life line originates from Lake Mansarovar in the Himalayan region. It is 3180km long and after passing through many cities of Pakistan joins the Arabian Sea at Karachi. The water of River Indus is used for domestic purposes, irrigation and also to produce electricity.

Historically it is important as it has seen the rise and fall of the Indus Valley Civilization. Its banks have also witnessed the battles between the locals and invaders like Alexander the Great.

River Indus is also the home of the endangered specie of blind dolphin and is a sanctuary of migratory birds as well.

The fan shaped Indus Delta harbors the 7th largest mangrove forest of the world and is the breeding ground of various forms of sea life.

River Indus has been aptly named “the lifeline of Pakistan.” In all honesty this statement is not at all exaggerated. Pakistan is an agrarian country which relies heavily on its agricultural resources. Canal irrigation system of  Pakistan is completely dependent on Indus river. There are many dams and barrages on this river which are the reasons of high yields and excessive production of agricultural produces in the country under discussion. Indus is thus very important to Pakistan. 

Agricultural products of Sindh

by on October 31, 2009
in Agriculture in Pakistan

Agriculture in SindhPakistan depends largely on agriculture for its economic development. A contribution of 30% to the GDP (Gross Domestic Production) makes Sindh the 2nd largest supplier of agricultural products. In the province of Sindh only 40% of the land can be cultivated. The rest comprises of the rugged and barren Kirthar Range and the sandy Thar Desert.

The climate of Sindh is sub-tropical. It experiences long summer spells with temperature shooting up to more than 45oC during May to August. Winters are cold with a minimum of 2oC during January- December. Rainfall is unpredictable and occurs mostly during July and August. With erratic rainfalls the only reliable source of water is the River Indus. Three barrages namely Guddu, Sukkur and Kotri are constructed over the Indus to supply water for irrigation.

Major areas where crops are cultivated are Khairpur, Nausharo Faroz, Nawabshah, Mirpur Khas, Larkana and Sukkur.

The fertile lands of the Lower Indus Plains along with the temperature are ideally suited for crops like wheat, rice, cotton and sugar cane. Sindh produces 35% of rice, 28% of sugar cane, 20% of cotton and 12% of wheat of the total production. Apart from these cash crops, fruits are also grown in the orchards of Sindh. Mangoes, bananas, dates, guavas and citrus fruit trees are grown here.

Sindh is especially known for its Sindhri Mangoes which are exported abroad as well. Sindh is also the largest chilies producer of the country. The red hot variety grown here is very much in demand across the globe.

A variety of flowers are grown for commercial scale for extracting essential oils and for oil-seeds.

The government of Pakistan has set up the Sindh Agricultural Department which provides assistance and guidance to the farmers.

Reasons to visit NWFP (now KPK), Punjab, Sindh and Baluchistan

by on October 7, 2009
in Travel Pakistan

Masjid wazir Khan

NWFP  (KPK-Khyber Pakhtoonkhwah) is nicknamed “the Switzerland of Pakistan” because of its spellbinding beauty. It is a land of mountains covered with Alpine and coniferous forests, sparkling streams, dancing water falls and glaciers. It is guarded by the three mighty mountains the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and the Himalayas. Relics of the Gandhara –Buddhist era are scattered all over the northern areas. So if you are a nature’s freak or interested in mountain climbing, hiking and trekking then do visit the northern areas of Pakistan.

Punjab is famous for its hospitality and historical places. A number of buildings from the Mughal era are found in the plains of Punjab. Punjab is a land of lush green fields. It is also the land of five rivers. The tributaries of the River Indus snake through Punjab.

Sindh has a rich history. The remains of the world’s oldest civilization are found at Moen Jo Daro. Other historical sites include Rani Not Fort, Pucca Qila, Makli Hills Tomb, Chaukhandi Tombs and Shah Jehan Mosque. There are some shrines as well which are thronged by thousands of devotees whole year round. The Karlri Lake, Keenjhar Lake and the Kirthar Natural Park are some places worth seeing.

Karachi the capital of Sindh is a coastal city and a valid reason to visit Sindh. Karachi is the most modern and biggest city of Pakistan. It has a number of buildings from the colonial era. Karachi is famous for its shopping centers and beaches.

Baluchistan is mostly dry but there are some interesting places which allure the tourists. The juniper forests, Hanna Lake, Ziarat, Quetta and Chaman are some places of interest in Baluchistan. There are many beaches in Baluchistan such as Gadani, Somiani etc. The coastal city of Gawadar is being developed with all modern amenities for the future.


Travel Pakistan – Indus River and Deosai

by on August 22, 2009
in Travel Pakistan

River Indus of Pakistan

The gigantic Indus River

The mighty river of Indus passes through China, India and Pakistan and it discharges at the Arabian Sea. The Indus River has a mighty annual flow and it ranks 21st in the world and 1st in the Pakistan. This river is considered the life line of Pakistan as it waters many fields of Pakistan. Many dams are built on it and Pakistani economy heavily depends on the Indus River.

The river is 3180 km long and it finally discharges into Arabian Sea near Karachi, Pakistan. The Indus River forms a delta in the Pakistani province of Sindh.

The glaciers of Himalayas, Karakoram and Hindu-kush are the main sources of the Indus River. The river itself originated from Tibet. The flow of the river keeps changing around the year and it flow its banks. In Monsoon while the flow almost diminishes in the winter.

The main tributaries of the Indus River are Astor River, Balram River, Gomel River, Gilgit River, Kabul River, Gar River and Khizar River.

Deosai National Park

Deosai National Park is located in Northern Area of Pakistan. It is in the town of Skardu and the park is situated on the plateaus that are among the highest plateaus in the world. These plateaus are around 4114 meters above the sea level. Deosai is covered with snow for half of the year that is between the month of November and May.

In the spring season, Deosai is covered with a million flowers that are surrounded by beautiful butterflies. This scenery attracts many visitors in the spring.

Shausar Lake is another tourists’ attraction in the Deosai National Park. This lake is 4142 meters from the sea level and is 2.3 km in length.

Deosai is the natural habitat of the Himalayan brown bear. The Deosai National Park was made to secure this endangered species of bear. This bear is the largest omnivore in Pakistan. When the park was established, there were only 14 brown bears which have grown to around 43 now.

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