Chief Ministers perform the important duty of looking after the provinces. Their other duties include maintaining peace and harmony among the different communities living in the province and safeguarding the rights of the province. Currently there are five chief ministers in Pakistan; their brief introduction is as follows:
Syed Qaim Ali Shah: This seasoned politician is the chief minister of Sindh province of Pakistan. Born in 1935 in an influential family in Khairpur Sindh, Syed Qaim Ali Shah did his LLB from Karachi and started practicing law. He joined the Pakistan People’s Party in 1967 and is one of its earliest members. Qaim Ali Shah took oath as the 23rd chief minister of Sindh on 7th April 2008. This is his second term as a chief minister, previously he held this position during Benazir Bhutto’s government.
Shahbaz Sharif: The chief minister of Punjab Shahbaz Sharif belongs to PML-N group. He was born in 1950 in Lahore. He was sworn in as the Chief Minister in 2008 but he was ousted from his office as he was declared ineligible to contest elections by the Supreme Court of Pakistan. However he obtained a stay order and returned to his office which he holds to date. This is Shahbaz Sharif’s second term as a Chief Minister; earlier he held this post from 1997-1999 when his brother Nawaz Sharif was the prime minister. He is an astute politician who has worked for the betterment of Punjab.
Ameer Haider Khan Hoti: Ameer Haider Khan the son of a former Federal Minister Azam Khan Hoti is the 21st chief minister of Khyber Pakhtun Khawa province of Pakistan. He belongs to an illustrious family of politicians and is a member of the Awami National Party (ANP).
Nawab Aslam Raisani: The tribal head of Raisani Tribe and a member of PPP, Nawab Aslam Raisani is the 13th chief minister of Balochistan. Being a veteran politician with a deep understanding of the tribal culture and traditions; Raisani has introduced modern methods of farming in Balochistan.
Syed Mehdi Shah: Syed Mehdi Shah a member of the ruling PPP is the first chief minister of Gilgit Baltistan. He was appointed by the former Prime Minister of Pakistan Syed Yusuf Raza Gillani.
The history of Pakistani Airlines started with the merging of Orient Airways with international airlines cooperation of Pakistan. At that time Pakistan International Airlines was the only operator that provided travelling facilities to passengers. Meanwhile private airlines emerged and started their services in Pakistan. However, currently there exist only three main Pakistani airlines which include PIA, Air Blue and Shaheen Air.
Pakistan International Airlines (PIA), only airline owned by the Government of Pakistan, provides its travelling facilities to 42 international destinations and 27 domestic flights are operated by it. It has an employment rate of 18,043 according to the survey (2008). The main bases of PIA lay in three big cities of Pakistan namely Lahore, Karachi and Islamabad.
Air blue is the privately owned Pakistani airline which is the second largest domestic airline of Pakistan. It provides its services to five international destinations and four domestic places. Besides, another main Pakistani airline is Shaheen Air that is the private-based cooperation. Like Air Blue, it operates among main cities of Pakistan and schedules international flights to five or six destinations. The main base of both of these privately owned airlines exist at Jinnah International Airport in Karachi.
In addition to the currently serving airlines described above, there were few others that do not serve anymore due to some reasons. They include Aero Asia International, Pearl Air, Pakistan Airways and some others. Some of them closed their services long time ago and some had been suspended prior to poor management issues.
Pakistan has a rich cultural heritage and it is depicted in the form of marvelous structure built for the defense of a state or a country. There are many forts located all around the world that are of historical significance. The main purpose behind the construction of forts was to protect a country from invaders and enemies. However, they serve another purpose also which involves making a display of one’s architecture as depicted by its significance in a culture. Pakistan is proud to have enormous forts with beautiful architecture and rich cultural significance.Ranikot, the largest fort of the world is also situated in Pakistan. The reason behind the accumulation of forts in Pakistan lies in its history. As Pakistan initially was a part of Indo-Pak sub-continent, it had been ruled over by various monarchs including Mughals who were fond of art and architecture. Here a list of the famous forts of Pakistan has been presented naming only the top ten forts of Pakistan with their respective locations. These forts are a place of frequent local visits along with being famous tourist attractions
1) Ranikot Fort located in the province of Sindh.
2) Baltit Fort situated in Hunza Valley
3) Royal Fort located in Lahore
4) Rohtas Fort situated in Dina
5) Multan Fort located in Multan
6) Rawat Fort in Rawalpindi
7) Phrasal Fort in Rawalpindi
8) Red Fort of Muzaffarabad
9) Attock Fort of Rawalpindi
10) Giri Fort in Taxila
Pakistan has a rich culture and many languages are spoken here by a diversified group of people. Language is a mode of communication through which people living in this world communicate with each other. The ancient languages were consisted mostly of symbols and gestures. With the passage of time, letter and alphabets got developed which gave rise to a lot of languages. Now thousands of languages are being spoken in various parts of the world including Pakistan. There are two official languages in Pakistan namely Urdu and English with various four main regional languages. The four languages that are spoken in the four provinces of Pakistan are Punjabi, Pashtu, Sindhi and Balochi. However, there are other regional languages also that are spoken in various areas of Pakistan. These languages include Kashmiri, Saraiki, Hindko and some others. It is important to note that the majority of population in Pakistan speaks regional or provincial languages other than Urdu. A list of the top ten languages spoken in Pakistan is given below:
1) Punjabi Language spoken mostly in the province of Punjab
2) Pashto Language frequently spoken in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa
3) Sindhi Language predominantly spoken in Sindh province
4) Seraiki Language mostly spoken in Punjab province
5) Urdu Language frequently spoken all over Pakistan. Urdu is Pakistan’s national language.
6) Balochi Language predominantly spoken in Balochistan province
7) Hindko language spoken in hilly areas of Pakistan
8) Kashmiri language spoken in Azad Kashmir and adjacent areas
9) Brahui spoken in Southern suburbs of Pakistan
10) Shina mostly spoken in Giglit-Baltistan
There are only two rivers in Karachi; one is Malir river and the other one is River Lyari. It is a small stream flowing through Karachi from north east to the center and drops into the Arabian Sea at the Monora channel. The river is approximately 30 miles or 50 kilometers long and it carries collected water from the rains in the catchment area.
The river had fish and clean water with farming done on its bank until 1950. After the independence Karachi bacame the capital of Pakistan and a huge number of refugees came into the city. The river’s ecology started to transform and slowly and steadily it discharged sewage, waste water and industrial wastes.
Due to some occasional floods in the surroundings of the river and the havoc caused by heavy rains in 1977 flood barriers were build along River Lyari. An express was planned with a length of about 16.5 kilometers through the city along both sides of the river banks of Lyari many years back. The work started in 2002 and got completed in 2009. This river is not as beautiful as many other rivers in Pakistan. However, Lyari river has its own importance due to its location and due to which it is considered among one of the most important rivers in Pakistan.
The industrial sector of Pakistan accounts for almost 24% of the GDP. The largest industry in the country is cotton textile and apparel accounting for almost 66% of the exports and about 40% of the employed labour. The other major industries include cement, edible oil, fertilizers, steel, tobacco, chemical, sports goods, machinery and food processing.
The Government is trying to diversify the industrial base and improve our export capacity. Privatization of parastatal units is being done on a large scale and growth has accelerated in the overall industrial output.
Lets take a look at the important industries of the country.
Cotton Industry of Pakistan
Cotton industry is the leading industry of Pakistan. We are not only self sufficient in fulfilling the local demands of cotton goods but are also exporting to other countries and earn foreign exchange through this sector. Due to the perfect climate and soil 1.3 million out of 5 million farmers in Pakistan cultivate cotton. On the average around 30 to 40 percent of the cotton is consumed locally and the rest is exported in raw or finished form to many countries of the world.
In the past most of the raw cotton was exported but now more emphasis is being given on the export of finished products as value added commodities bring in much more earnings for the country. Pakistan earns 55% of its foreign exchange through exports of raw cotton, cotton yarn, cloth and garments and other cotton products, which together make up about 70% of Pakistan’s total exports per year.
Pakistan is the 5th largest producer of cotton, 3rd largest exporter of raw cotton, 4th largest consumer of cotton and the largest exporter of cotton yarn.
Cotton industry has four main processes, including:
- Ginning: Cotton lint is separated from the seeds.
- Spinning: Cotton fibres are turned into yarn.
- Weaving: Cotton yarn is woven into cloth.
- Garment-manufacturing: The woven cloth is finally given shape of clothes.
Pakistan has shown remarkable growth in the production of cotton products. Spinning industry has shown great improvements in its production during last five years and an increase in its capacity from 5.27M.spindles and 77000 rotors in 1990 to 8.63M spindles and 132000 rotors in 1995. Same is with the production of yarn; it also showed an increase in its production from 1055.23M.K.Gs in 1990 to 1415.20M.K.Gs in 1995.
Currently there are 493 textile units working in Pakistan, out of which 53 are composite units, 410 are the spinning mills and 30 are the waste spinning units. There are around 700 spindles, 27,000 looms in the mills sector, and 250,000 in the non mills sector, 700 knitwear units, 4000 garments units, 650 dyeing and finishing units and around 1000 ginneries. These units are mostly in the Province of Punjab. Large numbers of textile mills are also present in and around Karachi, as it is a metropolitan city and have a sea port with transportation being much simpler than other cities. Other main cities for this sector are Faisalabad and Hyderabad and both have mills close to the cotton producing areas.
Cotton industry is facing many problems that include inconsistent production of cotton crop, improper system of stabilizing the prices of cotton and yarn, lack of timely modernization of the industrial machineries, lack of skilled labour and the most prominent current problem is load shedding of electricity and natural gas. Pakistan is also facing a decline in the production of cotton in the last 4-5 years and the local consumption is increasing as compared to India whose production gained prominent increase in the same period.
It is also facing a recession phase because of its prices. It is under a fierce competition with the countries with low cost prices as Pakistani products are comparatively high in price due to high cost of electricity, instable political and financial circumstances and untimely changes in the terms and conditions of exports.
The Qassaban Mosque was constructed in the late 18th century in Saddar, Karachi. At that time too Karachi showed signs of being a cosmopolitan city. Followers of different religions lived peacefully and Temples, Cathedrals, Synagogues, Parsi Dar-e-Meher and Mosques formed the architecture of the place. Saddar area was mainly inhabited by non-Muslims but when the Muslim community grew, the Jamia Masjid Qassaban was constructed. As the name Qassaban suggests, the Muslims living there were mainly butchers. Along with many other mosques in Pakistan this one is considered as the best in reflecting the local architecture.
The architecture of the mosque is heavily inspired by Italian Renaissance and the small dome which looks more like a cupola was the only sign that it was a Muslim place of worship. Minarets were added to the structure later. People are aware of the historic importance of the mosque and are doing their utmost to preserve what is left of the original structure. The exterior of the mosque has retained most of the original work while the interior has undergone many changes.
Jamia Masjid Qassaban is not a masterpiece of architecture, it is a beautiful building which reminds you of the good old times when Karachi was a peaceful city.
This range is about 800 kilometers long and is located in Eastern Pakistan in the Punjab and Sindh provinces and Western India. The word Aravalli means ‘line of Peaks’ and the locals call it Mewat hills. The highest peak lies in the southwestern end of the range. Udaipur city is on its south in Rajasthan, with many lakes. Many rivers rise from this range like Luni, Sakhi ans Banas rivers. This range is a very beautiful mountain range located in Pakistan.
The range is the eorded stub of old folded mountains and joins two ancient segments making the Indian Craton. These ancient mountain folds have stopped growing in height because of the upward thrust due to cease in tectonic plates movement in the crust of the earth under them. Million years of weathering have reduced their heights which is totally opposite to Himalaya mountains which are rising with time.
This range is blessed with mineral resource and has witnessed many years of illegal mining which caused an environemental concern and the government banned in May 2009.
|Fact sheet of Aravalli Range in Pakistan|
|No.||Names of Imp. Peaks of Aravalli Range||Height of Aravalli Range Peaks (m)||Location of Aravalli Range Peaks|
|1||Guru Shikhar||1,722||Mount Abu|
Tauseef Ahmed was a former right arm off spin bowler from Pakistan. He made his debut against Australia in Karachi and in the very first test took seven wickets thus playing a crucial role in Pakistan’s victory. His career best innings was that against Sri Lanka when he took 6 wickets while giving away only 42 runs. Another memorable innings from Tauseef Ahmed is his match winning performance against India in 1986-87. Tauseef Ahmed took 9 wickets including the prized wicket of Sunil Gavaskar whom he trapped at 96.
Tauseef Ahmed played 34 test matches and took 93 wickets including 5 wickets in an innings thrice. His ODI record shows 70 matches and 55 wickets. This crafty off spinner was called the Lionel Richie of Pakistani team because of his close resemblance to the singer. Although Tauseef Ahmed is remembered as a great off spinner, his most fond memory in Pakistan for the Pakistani cricket fan is the fact that he was at the other end of the crease when Miandad hit his famous smashing six off Chetan Sharma to defeat India in Sharjah Cup final of 1986. It was such a marvelous victory for Pakistan that still a lot of people share the details of that victory, giving due attention to the one single Tauseef took to hand over the strike to legendary Javed Miandad who struck a sixer off the last ball.